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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

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  • The Role of Endoscopic Management in Afferent Loop Syndrome

    Clement Chun Ho Wu1,2 , Elizabeth Brindise3 , Rami El Abiad3 , Mouen A. Khashab4

    Abstract : Afferent loop syndrome (ALS) is a morbid complication that may occur after gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy reconstruction. The aim of this article is to review the different endoscopic treatment options of ALS. We describe the evolution of the endoscopic treatment of ALS and its limitations despite the overall propitious profile. We analyze the advantages of endoscopic ultrasound-guided entero-enterostomy (EUS EE) over enteroscopy-guided intervention, and the clinical outcomes of EUS EE. We expound on pre-procedural considerations, intra-procedural techniques and post-procedural care following EUS EE. We conclude that given the simplification of the technique and the ability to place a stent away from the tumor, EUS EE is a promising technique that will likely be established as the treatment of choice for ALS.

  • Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Fibrosis

    Xiaomin Wu , Xiaoxuan Lin , Jinyu Tan , Zishan Liu , Jinshen He , Fan Hu , Yu Wang , Minhu Chen , Fen Liu , Ren Mao

    Abstract : Intestinal fibrosis associated stricture is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease usually requiring endoscopic or surgical intervention. Effective anti-fibrotic agents aiming to control or reverse intestinal fibrosis are still unavailable. Thus, clarifying the mechanism underpinning intestinal fibrosis is imperative. Fibrosis is characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins at the injured sites. Multiple cellular types are implicated in fibrosis development. Among these cells, mesenchymal cells are major compartments that are activated and then enhance the production of ECM. Additionally, immune cells contribute to the persistent activation of mesenchymal cells and perpetuation of inflammation. Molecules are messengers of crosstalk between these cellular compartments. Although inflammation is necessary for fibrosis development, purely controlling intestinal inflammation cannot halt the development of fibrosis, suggesting that chronic inflammation is not the unique contributor to fibrogenesis. Several inflammation-independent mechanisms including gut microbiota, creeping fat, ECM interaction, and metabolic reprogramming are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. In the past decades, substantial progress has been made in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis. Here, we summarized new discoveries and advances of cellular components and major molecular mediators that are associated with intestinal fibrosis, aiming to provide a basis for exploring effective anti-fibrotic therapies in this field.

  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori and Clarithromycin Resistance

    Jin Hee Noh1 , Ji Yong Ahn1 , Jene Choi2 , Young Soo Park2 , Hee Kyong Na1 , Jeong Hoon Lee1 , Kee Wook Jung1 , Do Hoon Kim1 , Kee Don Choi1 , Ho June Song1 , Gin Hyug Lee1 , Hwoon-Yong Jung1 , Jung Mogg Kim3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a fast and simple method for the simultaneous detection of clarithromycin (CLR) resistance and Helicobacter pylori. We evaluated the effectiveness of RT-PCR compared to that of the rapid urease test (RUT) and assessed its value in verifying CLR resistance.Methods: A total of 70 specimens with confirmed H. pylori infection in culture were enrolled and analyzed in this prospective study. All specimens were subjected to RT-PCR assay using fluorescence melting peak signals to detect H. pylori infection and CLR resistances caused by either A2142G or A2143G mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene (23S rRNA). The results were compared to those of RUT and antimicrobial susceptibility culturing tests to investigate the efficacy of RT-PCR.Results: Among the 70 specimens analyzed, the positivity rate was 97.1% (68/70) with RT-PCR and 82.9% (58/70) with RUT. CLR resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration >1.0 μg/mL) was confirmed in 18.6% (13/70), and fluorescence melting curve analysis showed that 84.6% (11/13) had point mutations in 23S rRNA. Ten specimens had only A2143G mutation, and one specimen contained both A2142G and A2143G mutations.Conclusions: RT-PCR assay was found to be more efficient than RUT in detecting H. pylori infection and could effectively verify CLR resistance compared to the antimicrobial susceptibility culturing test. Considering the high sensitivity and accessibility of RT-PCR method, it could be used to easily detect CLR-resistant H. pylori, thus helping clinicians select suitable treatment regimen and improve the eradication rate.

  • Four-Hour Fasting for Semifluids and 2-Hour Fasting for Water Improves the Patient Experience of Esophagogastroduodenoscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Meng-Xi Cai1,2 , Ye Gao1,2 , Li Li3 , Wen Feng3 , Yi-Lin Wang4 , Zhao-Shen Li1,2 , Lei Xin1,2 , Luo-Wei Wang1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: We aimed to investigate the comfort, safety, and endoscopic visibility during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) afforded by a modified 4-hour semifluid and 2-hour water (“4+2”) fasting protocol.Methods: In this parallel group, endoscopist-blinded, randomized controlled trial, outpatients undergoing unsedated diagnostic EGD from 10:30 AM to 12:00 PM were randomly assigned to either a “4+2” protocol group or a conventional fasting group. The participants’ comfort during the fasting period and procedure was measured using the visual analog scale, and mucosal visibility was measured by endoscopists using the total visibility score. Satisfaction was defined as a visual analog scale score of ≤3. The primary outcome was the participants’ comfort during fasting.Results: One hundred and six and 108 participants were randomized to the “4+2” protocol and control groups, respectively. Participants’ comfort before EGD was significantly higher in the “4+2” protocol group measured by both the proportion of satisfaction (86.8% vs 63.9%, p=0.002) and the visual analog scale score (median [interquartile range]: 1.0 [1.0–2.0] vs 3.0 [1.0–4.0], p<0.001). The proportion of satisfaction during EGD also significantly improved (59.4% vs 45.4%, p=0.039) in the “4+2” protocol group. The total visibility score was unaffected by the fasting protocol (5.0 [4.0–5.0] vs 4.0 [4.0–5.0], p=0.266). No adverse events were observed during the study.Conclusions: The “4+2” protocol was more comfortable and provided equal mucosal visibility and safety compared with conventional fasting for unsedated EGD.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Chemoresistance is a common event after cancer chemotherapy, which is associated with the deregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs). The objective of this study was to clarify the role of circ-LDLRAD3 in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant gastric cancer (GC). Methods: The expression of circ-LDLRAD3, miR-588, and SRY-box transcription factor 5 (SOX5) mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value were measured by CCK8 assay. Cell proliferation was assessed by colony formation and EdU assays. Cell apoptosis and cell invasion were assessed by flow cytometry assay and transwell assay, respectively. The expression of SOX5 protein was detected by Western blotting. A xenograft model was established to verify the role of circ-LDLRAD3 in vivo. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy and the expression of exosome-related proteins. Results: circ-LDLRAD3 was overexpressed in DDP-resistant GC tissues and cells. circ-LDLRAD3 knockdown decreased the IC50 of DDP-resistant cells and suppressed cell proliferation, survival and invasion. miR-588 was a target of circ-LDLRAD3, and miR-588 inhibition attenuated the inhibition of DDP resistance, proliferation, survival and invasion in DDP-resistant GC cells caused by circ-LDLRAD3 knockdown. SOX5 was a target of miR-588, and the inhibition of the DDP resistance, proliferation, survival and invasion of DDP-resistant GC cells by miR-588 restoration was largely rescued SOX5 overexpression. circ-LDLRAD3 knockdown inhibited DDP resistance and tumor growth in vivo. circ-LDLRAD3 was overexpressed in exosomes isolated from DDP-resistant GC cells. Conclusions: circ-LDLRAD3 knockdown reduced DDP resistance and blocked the malignant development of DDP-resistant GC by modulating the miR-588/SOX5 pathway.

  • Postoperative Bleeding Risk after Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in Patients Receiving a P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist

    Ryosuke Hirai1 , Seiji Kawano1 , Shoko Inoo1 , Sakiko Kuraoka1 , Shotaro Okanoue1 , Takuya Satomi1 , Kenta Hamada2 , Yoshiyasu Kono1 , Hiromitsu Kanzaki1 , Masaya Iwamuro1 , Yoshiro Kawahara2 , Hiroyuki Okada1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The safety of gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in users of a P2Y12 receptor antagonist (P2Y12RA) under current guidelines has not been verified.Methods: Patients treated by gastric ESD at Okayama University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2020 were registered. The postoperative bleeding rates of patients (group A) who did not receive any antithrombotic drugs; patients (group B) receiving aspirin or cilostazol monotherapy; and P2Y12RA users (group C) those on including monotherapy or dual antiplatelet therapy were compared. The risk factors for post-ESD bleeding were examined in a multivariate analysis of patient background, tumor factors, and antithrombotic drug management.Results: Ultimately, 1,036 lesions (847 patients) were enrolled. The bleeding rates of group B and C were significantly higher than that of group A (p=0.012 and p

  • TCN1 Deficiency Inhibits the Malignancy of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Regulating the ITGB4 Pathway

    Xinqiang Zhu1,2 , Xuetong Jiang2 , Qinglin Zhang3 , Hailong Huang2 , Xiaohong Shi4 , Daorong Hou5 , Chungen Xing1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the biological function and regulatory mechanism of TCN1 in colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods: We studied the biological function of TCN1 by performing gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses in HCT116 cell lines; examined the effects of TCN1 on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of CRC cells; and determined potential molecular mechanisms using HCT116 and SW480 CRC lines and mouse xenotransplantation models. Tumor xenograft and colonization assays were performed to detect the tumorigenicity and metastatic foci of cells in vivo.Results: TCN1 knockdown attenuated CRC cell proliferation and invasion and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of TCN1 yielded the opposite effects. In addition, TCN1-knockdown HCT116 cells failed to form metastatic foci in the peritoneum after intravenous injection. Molecular mechanism analyses showed that TCN1 interacted with integrin subunit β4 (ITGB4) to positively regulate the expression of ITGB4. TCN1 knockdown promoted the degradation of ITGB4 and increased the instability of ITGB4 and filamin A. Downregulation of ITGB4 at the protein level resulted in the disassociation of the ITGB4/plectin complex, leading to cytoskeletal damage.Conclusions: TCN1 might play an oncogenic role in CRC by regulating the ITGB4 signaling pathway.

  • Early Infliximab Trough Levels Predict the Long-term Efficacy of Infliximab in a Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients with Active Crohn’s Disease Comparing, between CT-P13 and Originator Infliximab

    Jihye Park1 , Jae Hee Cheon1 , Kang-Moon Lee2 , Young-Ho Kim3 , Byong Duk Ye4 , Chang Soo Eun5 , Sung Hyun Kim6 , Sun Hee Lee6 , Joon Ho Lee6 , Stefan Schreiber7

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The clinical efficacy and safety of CT-P13 are comparable to originator infliximab for Crohn’s disease in CT-P13 3.4 study (NCT02096861). We performed a multivariate logistic analysis to demonstrate the association between early infliximab trough levels and treatment outcomes of CT-P13 and originator infliximab. Methods: Early serum infliximab trough levels and anti-drug antibody (ADA) levels were compared between CT-P13 (n=100) and originator infliximab (n=98) groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and multivariate logistic analysis were conducted to identify optimal cutoffs of serum infliximab trough levels and predictive factors for clinical outcomes. Results: The median infliximab trough levels were not different between CT-P13 and originator infliximab groups at week 6, week 14, and in median ADA levels at week 14, respectively. ROC analysis found an infliximab concentration threshold of 4.5 μg/mL at week 6 and 4.0 μg/mL at week 14 as the cutoff value with the highest accuracy for the prediction of clinical outcomes. Serum infliximab trough levels at weeks 6 and 14 predicted clinical remission at weeks 30 and 54, and endoscopic remission at week 54. The combinations of clinical remission or C-reactive protein normalization with an early infliximab trough level improved the prediction of long-term clinical or endoscopic remission. Conclusions: A threshold in serum infliximab trough level at week 6 and week 14 was highly predictive for long-term clinical outcomes. There were no statistical differences in serum infliximab trough levels and ADA levels between CT-P13 and originator infliximab.

  • Associations of Polyp Characteristics in Children and Adolescents Presenting with Less Than Five Colorectal Polyps: A Full Colonoscopy Is Still Required

    Ju Young Kim1 , Yu Bin Kim2 , Sujin Choi3 , Yoo Min Lee4 , Hyun Jin Kim5 , Soon Chul Kim6 , Hyo-Jeong Jang7 , So Yoon Choi8 , Dae Yong Yi9 , Yoon Lee10 , You Jin Choi11 , Yunkoo Kang12 , Kyung Jae Lee13 , Suk Jin Hong14 , Jun Hyun Hwang15 , Sanggyu Kwak16 , Byung-Ho Choe3 , Ben Kang3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: A full colonoscopy is currently required in children and adolescents with colorectal polyps, because of their potential of neoplastic transformation and complications such as intussusception. We aimed to analyze the associations of polyp characteristics in children and adolescents with colorectal polyps. Based on these findings, we also aimed to reevaluate the necessity of conducting a full colonoscopy.Methods: Pediatric patients

  • Chasm between Public Perceptions and Epidemiological Data on Colorectal Cancer

    Su Bee Park , Min Seob Kwak , Jin Young Yoon , Jae Myung Cha

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Only a few studies have examined perceptions of the incidence and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the general Korean population. The aim of this study was to determine public perceptions of the lifetime incidence rate and survival of CRC.Methods: All adults older than 50 years who visited the Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong were invited to participate in this survey for 5 months in 2021. During the study period, eligible individuals participated in this survey through a link or quick response code on a poster posted in the hospital, which was linked to a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire used for this survey included demographic and socioeconomic data, perceptions of CRC, and awareness of the CRC incidence and 5-year survival rate.Results: Among 203 respondents, 196 answers were analyzed after the exclusion of seven incomplete answers. In our survey, half of the respondents (49.5%) answered the expected lifetime incidence rate of CRC as 0% to 4.9%. Koreans perceived CRC as a more fatal disease than epidemiological data, as 70.9% of the respondents expected the 5-year survival rate of CRC to be less than 70% for the general population. However, Koreans perceived stage IV CRC as a less fatal disease than epidemiological data, because only 20.9% of the respondents expected the 5-year survival rate of stage IV CRC to be less than 10% for general population.Conclusions: Koreans recognized CRC as a more common and fatal disease than actual epidemiological data of CRC. Therefore, more efforts should be made to provide more correct information on CRC for better decision-making and communication.

  • High Sodium Intake, as Assessed by Urinary Sodium Excretion, Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease or Sarcopenia

    Eugene Han1 , Mi Kyung Kim1 , Seung-Soon Im2 , Hye Soon Kim1 , Taeg Kyu Kwon3 , Byoung Kuk Jang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: We explored whether high sodium intake, assessed by urinary excretion, determines the risk of sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We analyzed 10,036 adult participants with normal kidney function from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011). NAFLD was identified using the fatty liver index, and the muscle mass was evaluated using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The dietary sodium intake was estimated using Tanaka’s equation. Results: The mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 144.2±36.1 mmol/day (corresponding to 3.3 g/day Na) in the total population. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion showed moderate accuracy in predicting NAFLD (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.702; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.692 to 0.712). A cutoff value of 99.96 mmol/day (corresponding to 2.30 g/day Na) for urinary sodium excretion in predicting NAFLD showed 76.1% sensitivity and 56.1% specificity. The results of multiple adjusted models indicated that the participants with the highest urinary sodium excretion had a significantly higher risk of NAFLD (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.66; p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: To compare the performance of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2018 and Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) 2018 criteria for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hepatobiliary agent (HBA).Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies from January 1, 2018, to October 20, 2021, that compared the diagnostic performance of two imaging criteria on HBA-MRI. A bivariate random-effects model was fitted to calculate the per-observation sensitivity and specificity, and the estimates of paired data were compared. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the observation size. Meta-regression analysis was also performed for study heterogeneity.Results: Of the six studies included, the pooled sensitivity of the definite HCC category of the KLCA-NCC criteria (82%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 74% to 90%; I2=84%) was higher than that of LR-5 of LI-RADS v2018 (65%; 95% CI, 52% to 77%; I2=96%) for diagnosing HCC (p

  • National Survey Regarding the Management of Difficult Bile Duct Stones in South Korea

    Yoon Suk Lee1 , Tae Joo Jeon2 , Woo Hyun Paik3 , Dong-Won Ahn4 , Kwang Hyun Chung5 , Byoung Kwan Son5 , Tae Jun Song6 , Sung-Hoon Moon7 , Eaum Seok Lee8 , Jae Min Lee9 , Seung Bae Yoon10 , Chang Nyol Paik11 , Yun Nah Lee12 , Jin-Seok Park13 , Dong Wook Lee14 , Sang Wook Park15 , Hyung Ku Chon16 , Kwang Bum Cho17 , Chang Hwan Park18 , on behalf of the Committee of Policy and Quality Management in Korean Pancreatobiliary Association

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Hepatic Steatosis but Not Fibrosis Is Independently Associated with Poor Outcomes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Hye Kyung Hyun1 , Hye Won Lee2,3 , Jihye Park2 , Soo Jung Park2 , Jae Jun Park2 , Tae Il Kim2,4 , Jae Seung Lee2,3 , Beom Kyung Kim2,3 , Jun Yong Park2,3 , Do Young Kim2,3 , Sang Hoon Ahn2,3 , Seung Up Kim2,3 , Jae Hee Cheon2,4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Endoscopic Ultrasound Can Differentiate High-Grade Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Small Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, and Benign Stenosis

    Ryota Sagami1,2 , Kentaro Yamao2,3 , Ryuki Minami2,4 , Jun Nakahodo2,5 , Hidetoshi Akiyama6 , Hidefumi Nishikiori1 , Kazuhiro Mizukami7 , Kenji Yamao8 , Vikram Bhatia9 , Yuji Amano10 , Kazunari Murakami7

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Delayed Perforation Occurring after Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: Clinical Features and Management Strategy

    Tae-Se Kim , Byung-Hoon Min , Yang Won Min , Hyuk Lee , Poong-Lyul Rhee , Jae J. Kim , Jun Haeng Lee

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • External Validation of the eCura System for Undifferentiated-Type Early Gastric Cancer with Noncurative Endoscopic Resection

    Hyo-Joon Yang1 , Young-Il Kim2 , Ji Yong Ahn3 , Kee Don Choi3 , Sang Gyun Kim4 , Seong Woo Jeon5 , Jie-Hyun Kim6 , Sung Kwan Shin7 , Hyuk Lee8 , Wan Sik Lee9 , Gwang Ha Kim10 , Jae Myung Park11 , Woon Geon Shin12 , Il Ju Choi2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • The Effect of Intervention for Improving Colonoscopy Quality Is Associated with the Personality Traits of Endoscopists

    Hyun Ho Choi1 , Soo-Yoon Sung2 , Bo-In Lee3,4 , Hyun Cho5 , Yunho Jung6 , Jae Myung Park3,4 , Young-Seok Cho3 , Kang-Moon Lee7 , Sang Woo Kim1 , Hwang Choi8 , Hiun-Suk Chae1 , Myung-Gyu Choi3,4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in Korean Patients after Hepatitis C Cure with Direct-Acting Antivirals

    Hyeyeon Hong , Won-Mook Choi , Danbi Lee , Ju Hyun Shim , Kang Mo Kim , Young-Suk Lim , Han Chu Lee , Jonggi Choi

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: A National Survey from the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association

    Eunae Cho1 , Seong-Hun Kim2 , Seong Ji Choi3 , Min Kyu Jung4 , Byeong Jun Song5 , Jin Myung Park6 , Jingu Kang7 , Won Suk Park8 , Joo Kyung Park9 , Sang Myung Woo10 , Hyo Jung Kim11 , Study Group for Biliary Diseases , Korean Pancreatobiliary Association

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Comparison of an Endoscopic Scoring System and the Simplified Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity in Patients with Small Bowel Crohn’s Disease

    Ji Eun Na1,2 , Hon Soul Kim3 , Sung Noh Hong1 , Kyoung Doo Song3 , Ji Eun Kim1 , Eun Ran Kim1 , Young-Ho Kim1 , Dong Kyung Chang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Efficacy Analysis of Suprapapillary versus Transpapillary Self-Expandable Metal Stents According to the Level of Obstruction in Malignant Extrahepatic Biliary Obstruction

    Sung Yong Han1 , Tae Hoon Lee2 , Sung Ill Jang3 , Dong Uk Kim1 , Jae Kook Yang2 , Jae Hee Cho3 , Min Je Sung4 , Chang-Il Kwon4 , Jin-Seok Park5 , Seok Jeong5 , Don Haeng Lee5 , Sang-Heum Park2 , Dong Ki Lee3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Clinical Significance of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

    Joo Seong Kim1,2 , Woo Hyun Paik1 , Sang Hyub Lee1 , Min Woo Lee1 , Namyoung Park1 , Jin Ho Choi1 , In Rae Cho1 , Ji Kon Ryu1 , Yong-Tae Kim1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Clinical Outcomes and Validation of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Response Scores in Patients with Korean Primary Biliary Cholangitis: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Jong-In Chang1,2 , Jung Hee Kim3 , Dong Hyun Sinn1 , Ju-Yeon Cho4 , Kwang Min Kim5 , Joo Hyun Oh6 , Yewan Park7 , Won Sohn8 , Myung Ji Goh1 , Wonseok Kang1 , Geum-Youn Gwak1 , Yong-Han Paik1 , Moon Seok Choi1 , Joon Hyeok Lee1 , Kwang Cheol Koh1 , Seung-Woon Paik1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Incidence, Morbidity, and Mortality of Achalasia: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study in South Korea

    Ga Hee Kim1 , Hyungchul Park2,3 , Kee Wook Jung2 , Min-Ju Kim4 , Ye-Jee Kim4 , Ji Min Lee5 , Bong Eun Lee6 , Yang Won Min7 , Jeong Hwan Kim8 , Hee Kyong Na2 , Ji Yong Ahn2 , Jeong Hoon Lee2 , Do Hoon Kim2 , Kee Don Choi2 , Ho June Song2 , Gin Hyug Lee2 , Hwoon-Yong Jung2 , Hyun Jin Kim9 , Big Data Study Group Under the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Surgical Options for Appropriate Length of J-Pouch Construction for Better Outcomes and Long-term Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    Weimin Xu1 , Wenbo Tang1 , Wenjun Ding1 , Zhebin Hua1 , Yaosheng Wang1 , Xiaolong Ge2 , Long Cui1 , Xiaojian Wu3 , Wei Zhou2 , Zhao Ding4 , Peng Du1 , China UC Pouch Center Union

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Analysis of Characteristics and Risk Factors of Patients with Single Gastric Cancer and Synchronous Multiple Gastric Cancer among 14,603 Patients

    Du Hyun Song1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Hyeong Ho Jo1,3 , Sangbin Kim1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Hyeon Jeong Oh4 , Hye Seung Lee5 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,2 , So Hyun Kang6 , Young Suk Park6 , Sang-Hoon Ahn6 , Yun-Suhk Suh6 , Do Joong Park6,7 , Hyung Ho Kim6,7 , Ji-Won Kim1 , Jin Won Kim1 , Keun-Wook Lee1,2 , Won Chang8 , Ji Hoon Park8 , Yoon Jin Lee8 , Kyoung Ho Lee8,9 , Young Hoon Kim8,9 , Soyeon Ahn10 , Young-Joon Surh11,12

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Independent and Synergistic Associations of Aerobic Physical Activity and Resistance Exercise with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Hong Jun Yang1 , Yeon Pyo Hong2 , Tai-Young Yoon3 , Jae-Hong Ryoo4 , Joong-Myung Choi3 , Chang-Mo Oh3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • The Incidence and Care Cascade of the Hepatitis C Virus in Korea

    Young Eun Chon1 , Aejeong Jo2 , Eileen L. Yoon3 , Jonghyun Lee4 , Ho Gyun Shin2 , Min Jung Ko2 , Dae Won Jun3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • GATA4 Forms a Positive Feedback Loop with CDX2 to Transactivate MUC2 in Bile Acids-Induced Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia

    Xiaofang Yang1 , Ting Ye1 , Li Rong2 , Hong Peng2 , Jin Tong1 , Xiao Xiao1 , Xiaoqiang Wan1 , Jinjun Guo1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Optimizing Helicobacter pylori Treatment: An Updated Review of Empirical and Susceptibility Test-Based Treatments

    Fumiaki Ishibashi , Sho Suzuki , Mizuki Nagai , Kentaro Mochida , Tetsuo Morishita

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Jin Sun Kim1 , Mu-Hong Chen2,3,4 , Hohui E. Wang5 , Ching-Liang Lu4,6,7 , Yen-Po Wang4,6,7 , Bing Zhang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Treatments for Resectable and Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: The Current Status of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Treatment in Japan

    Shigenori Ei , Shinichiro Takahashi , Toshihito Ogasawara , Taro Mashiko , Yoshihito Masuoka , Toshio Nakagohri

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Acute Liver Failure

    Yong-Hong Wang , En-Qiang Chen

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Downregulation of Heat Shock Protein 72 Contributes to Fibrostenosis in Crohn’s Disease

    Seung Won Kim1,2 , Jae-Young Lee3 , Han Cheol Lee3 , Jae Bum Ahn3 , Ji Hyung Kim1 , I Seul Park1 , Jae Hee Cheon1,2 , Duk Hwan Kim4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Fibrotic Burden in the Liver Differs Across Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease Subtypes

    Tae Seop Lim1,2 , Ho Soo Chun3,4 , Soon Sun Kim5 , Ja Kyung Kim1,2 , Minjong Lee3,4 , Hyo Jung Cho5 , Seung Up Kim1,6 , Jae Youn Cheong5

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Pretransplant Functional Status Predicts Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality after Liver Transplantation in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Myung Ji Goh1 , Jihye Kim1 , Won Hyuk Chang2 , Dong Hyun Sinn1 , Geum-Yeon Gwak1 , Yong-Han Paik1 , Moon Seok Choi1 , Joon Hyeok Lee1 , Kwang Cheol Koh1 , Seung Woon Paik1 , Jong Man Kim3 , Wonseok Kang1,4,5

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Prognostic Significance of ARID1A Expression Patterns Varies with Molecular Subtype in Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Jun Yong Kim1 , Cheol Keun Park1 , Songmi Noh2 , Jae-Ho Cheong3 , Sung Hoon Noh3 , Hyunki Kim1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Fexuprazan in Patients with Acute or Chronic Gastritis

    Gwang Ha Kim1, Myung-Gyu Choi2, Jin Il Kim3, Soo Teik Lee4, Hoon Jai Chun5, Kook Lae Lee6, Suk Chei Choi7, Jae-Young Jang8, Yong Chan Lee9, Jae Gyu Kim10, Ki Bae Kim11, Ki-Nam Shim12, Chong Il Sohn13, Sung Kook Kim14, Sang Gyun Kim15, Jin Seok Jang16, Nayoung Kim17, Hwoon-Yong Jung18, Hyojin Park19, Kyu Chan Huh20, Kwang Jae Lee21, Su Jin Hong22, Song Baek23, Jin Joo Han23, Oh Young Lee24

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Mucosal and Submucosal Thickening of Esophageal Wall Is a Promising Factor in the Development of Symptoms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Yugo Suzuki1 , Yorinari Ochiai1 , Atsuko Hosoi2 , Takayuki Okamura1 , Junnosuke Hayasaka1 , Yutaka Mitsunaga1 , Masami Tanaka1 , Hiroyuki Odagiri1 , Kosuke Nomura1 , Satoshi Yamashita1 , Akira Matsui1 , Daisuke Kikuchi1 , Kenichi Ohashi3 , Shu Hoteya1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Helicobacter pylori Eradication Can Reverse Rho GTPase Expression in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Jue Lie Kim1 , Sang Gyun Kim2 , Enerelt Natsagdorj2 , Hyunsoo Chung2 , Soo-Jeong Cho2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • A Case of Intramural Gastric Wall Abscess, a Rare Disease Successfully Treated with Endoscopic Incision and Drainage

    Kyung Rok Kim , Ki Nam Shim , A Reum Choe , Min Jong Lee , Ye Hyun Park , Eun Mi Song , Chung Hyun Tae , Sung Ae Jung

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Artificial Intelligence in the Prediction of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors on Endoscopic Ultrasonography Images: Development, Validation and Comparison with Endosonographers

    Yi Lu1,2 , Jiachuan Wu3 , Minhui Hu1,2 , Qinghua Zhong4 , Limian Er5 , Huihui Shi5 , Weihui Cheng6 , Ke Chen7 , Yuan Liu7 , Bingfeng Qiu8 , Qiancheng Xu8 , Guangshun Lai9 , Yufeng Wang10 , Yuxuan Luo10 , Jinbao Mu10 , Wenjie Zhang11 , Min Zhi2,12 , Jiachen Sun1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Rehabilitation Program for Improved Musculoskeletal Pain in Gastrointestinal Endoscopists: Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    Su Youn Nam1 , Kwangwoo Nam2 , Ki-Nam Shim3 , Seoyon Yang4 , Chung Hyun Tae3 , Junwoo Jo5 , Nayoung Kim6,7 , Seon Mi Park8 , Young Sook Park9 , Seun Ja Park10 , Sung-Ae Jung3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumors According to the 2019 World Health Organization Grading System: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study

    Yuri Kim1 , Bokyung Ahn2 , Kee Don Choi1 , Beom-Su Kim3 , Jeong-Hwan Yook3 , Gin Hyug Lee1 , Seung-Mo Hong2 , Jeong Hoon Lee1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Esophageal Reflux Hypersensitivity: A Comprehensive Review

    Akinari Sawada1 , Daniel Sifrim2 , Yasuhiro Fujiwara1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Outcomes of Endoscopic Resection for Early Gastric Cancer in Very Elderly Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Tae Jun Kim1 , Jeung Hui Pyo2 , Hyuk Lee1 , Sung Chul Choi2 , Yang Won Min1 , Byung-Hoon Min1 , Jun Haeng Lee1 , Poong-Lyul Rhee1 , Minku Song3 , Yoon-Ho Choi2 , Jae J. Kim1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Infliximab in Intestinal Behçet’s Disease: A Multicenter, Phase 3 Study (BEGIN)

    Jae Hee Cheon1 , Hyun-Soo Kim2 , Dong Soo Han3 , Sung Kook Kim4 , Sung Jae Shin5 , Joo Sung Kim6 , Byong Duk Ye7 , Geun Am Song8 , YoungJa Lee9 , Youngdoe Kim9 , Yoosun Lee9 , Won Ho Kim1 , BEGIN Study Group

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Hemostatic Effect and Mechanism of Epidermal Growth Factor-Hemostatic Powder after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in a Porcine Model

    Da Hyun Jung1 , Ji Hyun Youn2 , Bo Mi Moon2 , Ji Hye Lee2 , Hyun-Seung Ryu2 , Joon Sung Kim3 , Hyuk Lee4 , Gwang Ha Kim5 , Jun Chul Park1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Are Newer Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Models Truly Improving Pancreatolithiasis Lithotripsy Performance? A Japanese Single-Center Study Using Endoscopic Adjunctive Treatment

    Ken Ito , Naoki Okano , Kensuke Takuma , Susumu Iwasaki , Koji Watanabe , Yusuke Kimura , Yuto Yamada , Kensuke Yoshimoto , Seiichi Hara , Yui Kishimoto , Takahisa Matsuda , Yoshinori Igarashi

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • The Expression of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 on Immune Cells Is Related to a Better Prognosis in Biliary Tract Cancer

    Sung Chan Kwon1 , Seungmin Bang1 , Young Nyun Park2 , Ji Hoon Park1 , So Jeong Kim1 , Jung Hyun Jo1 , Moon Jae Chung1 , Jeong Youp Park1 , Seung Woo Park1 , Si Young Song1 , Eunhyang Park2 , Hee Seung Lee1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Efficacy and Tolerability of 14-Day Tegoprazan- versus Rabeprazole-Based Triple Therapy for Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Real-World Evidence Study

    Yoon Suk Jung1 , Sunyong Kim2 , Hyun-Young Kim2 , Seung Jae Noh3 , Jung Ho Park1 , Chong Il Sohn1 , Chan Hyuk Park3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Impact of Crohn’s Disease on the Survival of Patients with Small-Bowel Adenocarcinoma in Korea: A Bicenter Cohort Study

    Kyuwon Kim1 , Kookhwan Choi2 , Sung Wook Hwang1,3 , Jong Pil Im2 , Byong Duk Ye1,3 , Joo Sung Kim2 , Kyu Joo Park4 , Suk-Kyun Yang1,3 , Seong-Joon Koh2 , Sang Hyoung Park1,3 , IBD Research Group of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • The Clinicopathological Features of Mixed Carcinoma in 7,215 Patients with Gastric Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in South Korea

    Hyeong Ho Jo1,2 , Nayoung Kim1,3 , Hyeon Jeong Oh4 , Du Hyun Song1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Jaehyung Park1 , Jongchan Lee1 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,3 , Hye Seung Lee5 , Young Suk Park6 , Sang-Hoon Ahn6 , Yun-Suhk Suh6 , Do Joong Park6,7 , Hyung Ho Kim6,7 , Ji-Won Kim1 , Jin Won Kim1 , Keun-Wook Lee1,3 , Won Chang8 , Ji Hoon Park8 , Yoon Jin Lee8 , Kyoung Ho Lee8,9 , Young Hoon Kim8,9 , Soyeon Ahn10

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Combinatorial Effect of Prophylactic Interventions for Post-ERCP Pancreatitis among Patients with Risk Factors: A Network Meta-Analysis

    Jin Ho Choi , Sang Hyub Lee , Joo Seong Kim , Namyoung Park , Myoeng Hwan Lee , Min Woo Lee , In Rae Cho , Woo Hyun Paik , Ji Kon Ryu , Yong-Tae Kim

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Long-term Outcomes of Endoscopic Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Ampullary Adenoma with Intraductal Extension after Endoscopic Snare Papillectomy

    Sung Hyun Cho , Dongwook Oh , Tae Jun Song , Do Hyun Park , Dong-Wan Seo , Sung Koo Lee , Myung-Hwan Kim , Sang Soo Lee

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Serum Anti-Fumarate Hydratase Autoantibody as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis of Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    Linlin Wei1 , Ting Wang2 , Sisi Chen3 , Yeying Liu3 , Xueying Huang3 , Sujun Zheng4 , Bin Xu1 , Feng Ren5 , Mei Liu3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Novel Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitor Confers Anti-inflammatory Effects and Enhances Gut Barrier Function

    Jae-Young Lee1 , Hyun Woo Ma2 , Ji Hyung Kim2 , I Seul Park2 , Mijeong Son2 , Keun Ho Ryu3 , Jieun Shin3 , Seung Won Kim2,4 , Jae Hee Cheon2,4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the patterns of preferred endoscopic procedure types and techniques for managing difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones in South Korea. Methods: The Committee of Policy and Quality Management of Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) conducted a survey containing 19 questions. Both paper and online surveys were carried out; with the paper survey being conducted during the 2019 Annual Congress of KPBA and the online survey being conducted through Google Forms from April 2020 to February 2021. Results: The response rate was approximately 41.3% (86/208). Sixty-two (73.0%) worked at tertiary hospitals or academic medical centers, and 60 (69.7%) had more than 5 years of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography experience. The preferred size criteria for large CBD stones were 15 mm (40.6%), 20 mm (31.3%), and 30 mm (4.6%). For managing of large CBD stones, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy was the most preferred technique (74.4%). When performing procedures in those with bleeding diathesis, 64 (74.4%) respondents favored endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) alone or EPBD with small endoscopic sphincterotomy. Fifty-five respondents (63.9%) preferred the doubleguidewire technique when faced with difficult bile duct cannulation in patients with periampullary diverticulum. In surgically altered anatomies, cap-fitted forward viewing endoscopy (76.7%) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (48.8%) were the preferred techniques for Billroth-II anastomosis and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, respectively. Conclusions: Most respondents showed unifying trends for the management of difficult CBD stones. The current practice patterns could be used as basic data for clinical quality improvements in the management of difficult CBD stones.

Gut and Liver

Vol.17 No.3
May, 2023

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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Aims and Scope

Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

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