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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

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  • Quality Indicators of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Korea

    Hyung Ku Chon1,2 , Ki-Hyun Kim3 , Tae Jun Song4 , Dong-Won Ahn5 , Eaum Seok Lee6 , Yun Nah Lee7 , Yoon Suk Lee8 , Tae Joo Jeon9 , Chang Hwan Park3 , Kwang Bum Cho10 , Dong Wook Lee11 , Jin-Seok Park12 , Seung Bae Yoon13 , Kwang Hyun Chung14 , Jin Lee15 , Miyoung Choi16

    Abstract : Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure that requires significant experiences and skills and has various procedure-related complications, some of which can be severe and even result in the death of patients. Expanding ERCP availability has the advantage of increasing accessibility for patients. However, ERCP poses a substantial risk if performed without proper quality management. ERCP quality management is essential for both ensuring safe and successful procedures and meeting the social demands for enhanced healthcare competitiveness and quality assurance. To address these concerns, the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association established a task force to develop ERCP quality indicators (QIs) tailored to the Korean medical environment. Key questions for five pre-procedure, three intra-procedure, and four post-procedure measures were formulated based on a literature search related to ERCP QIs and a comprehensive clinical review conducted by experts. The statements and recommendations regarding each QI item were selected through peer review. The developed ERCP QIs were reviewed by external experts based on the latest available evidence at the time of development. These domestically tailored ERCP QIs are expected to contribute considerably to improving ERCP quality in Korea.

  • Abstract : Disorders of the gut-brain interaction (DGBIs) are presently classified into mutually exclusive anatomical area-related symptom-based categories according to the Rome IV criteria. The pathophysiology of visceral nociception, which contributes to the wide range of symptoms of DGBIs, involves complex psychobiological processes arising from the bidirectional interactions of multiple systems at the gut and brain levels, which affect symptom expression and illness behaviors. The attitude toward an illness and expression of pain and bowel habit vary across cultures with variable interpretation based on sociocultural beliefs, which may not tally with the medical definitions. Thus, psychological factors impact DGBI definitions, their severity and health care utilization. Due to the poor localization and multisegment referral of visceral pain, the anatomical site of pain may not correspond to the affected segment, and there may be a variable degree of overlap among symptoms. The somewhat restrictively defined Rome IV criteria assume one-to-one correlation of symptoms with underlying pathophysiology and ignore overlapping DGBIs, nonstandardized symptom categories, and change or shift in category over time. The microorganic nature of DGBIs resulting from systemic, metabolic or motility disorders, gut dysbiosis and inflammation are not addressed in the Rome IV criteria. Although there is a multidimensional clinical profile that does address these factors, it is not followed rigorously in practice. Threshold changes for diagnostic criteria or addition/deletion of symptoms leads to wide variation among different DGBI criteria resulting in uncertain comparability of results. Although the Rome IV criteria are excellent for research studies and therapeutic trials in homogenous populations, further improvement is needed for their wider applicability in clinical practice.

  • Abstract : Current treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, pegylated interferon-α (pegIFN-α) and nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA), can suppress HBV replication, reverse liver inflammation and fibrosis, and decrease risks of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, but hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is rare. Functional HBV cure is defined as undetectable HBsAg and unquantifiable serum HBV DNA for at least 24 weeks after a finite course of therapy. This requires suppression of HBV replication and viral protein production as well as restoration of immune response to HBV. Direct-acting antivirals targeting virus entry, capsid assembly, viral protein production and secretion are in clinical trials. In parallel, immune modulatory therapies to stimulate HBV-specific immune response and to remove immune blockade are being tested. Clinical trials of direct-acting antivirals alone or immune modulatory therapies alone have not been successful in achieving HBV cure. Recent combinations of direct-acting antivirals and immune modulatory therapies have shown promising results particularly with combinations that included pegIFN-α. These results need to be confirmed in larger studies with longer follow-up, and further work is needed to develop simpler regimens with fewer drugs that can be administered orally and safely. While there is a strong desire to develop finite therapies that can achieve HBV cure, safety is paramount and new therapies must provide incremental value compared to standard of care, which is predominantly long-term NA therapy.

  • Daily Diet and Nutrition Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer Incidence in a Japanese Population

    Ayaka Takasu1 , Takuji Gotoda1,2 , Sho Suzuki3 , Chika Kusano4 , Chiho Goto5 , Hideki Ishikawa6 , Hirofumi Kogure1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Nutritional factors associated with gastric cancer (GC) are not completely understood. We aimed to determine the effect of nutrient intake on the incidence of GC. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective trial that evaluated modalities for GC screening in participants aged 30 to 74 years living in high-risk areas for GC in Japan between June 2011 and March 2013. The patients were followed up for GC incidence for 6 years. All participants completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) upon enrollment before GC screening. Daily nutrient intake was calculated from the FFQ and dichotomized at each cutoff value using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Risk factors associated with GC incidence were investigated in terms of nutrient intake and participant characteristics using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: Overall, 1,147 participants were included in this analysis. The median age was 62 years, and 50.7% of the participants were men. The median follow-up period was 2,184 days. GC was detected in 25 participants during the follow-up. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the intake of sodium (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 3.905; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.520 to 10.035; p=0.005) and vitamin D (aHR, 2.747; 95% CI, 1.111 to 6.788, p=0.029) were positively associated with GC incidence, whereas the intake of soluble dietary fiber (aHR, 0.104; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.905; p=0.040) was inversely associated with GC incidence. Conclusions: Daily high intake of sodium and vitamin D and low soluble dietary fiber intake are associated with GC incidence.

  • Combined DNA Methylation and Gastric Microbiome Marker Predicts Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastric Cancer

    Min-Jeong Kim1 , Han-Na Kim2,3 , Jonathan P. Jacobs4,5 , Hyo-Joon Yang1,6

    Abstract : Background/Aims: While DNA methylation and gastric microbiome are each associated with gastric cancer (GC), their combined role in predicting GC remains unclear. This study investigated the potential of a combined DNA methylation and gastric microbiome signature to predict Helicobacter pylori-negative GC.Methods: In this case-control study, we conducted quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction to measure the methylation levels of DKK3, SFRP1, EMX1, NKX6-1, MIR124-3, and TWIST1 in the gastric mucosa from 75 H. pylori-negative patients, including chronic gastritis (CG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and GC. A combined analysis of DNA methylation and gastric microbiome, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was performed in 30 of 75 patients.Results: The methylation levels of DKK3, SFRP1, EMX1, MIR124-3, and TWIST1 were significantly higher in patients with GC than in controls (all q

  • Associations among the Duodenal Ecosystem, Gut Microbiota, and Nutrient Intake in Functional Dyspepsia

    Sang Hoon Kim1 , Yura Choi2 , Jihong Oh2 , Eui Yeon Lim3 , Jung Eun Lee3,4 , Eun-Ji Song5 , Young-Do Nam5 , Hojun Kim2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Functional dyspepsia (FD) has long been regarded as a syndrome because its pathophysiology is multifactorial. However, recent reports have provided evidence that changes in the duodenal ecosystem may be the key. This study aimed to identify several gastrointestinal factors and biomarkers associated with FD, specifically changes in the duodenal ecosystem that may be key to understanding its pathophysiology. Methods: In this case-control study, 28 participants (12 with FD and 16 healthy control individuals) were assessed for dietary nutrients, gastrointestinal symptom severity, immunological status of the duodenal mucosa, and microbiome composition from oral, duodenal, and fecal samples. Integrated data were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, 16S rRNA sequencing, and network analysis. Results: Duodenal mucosal inflammation and impaired expression of tight junction proteins were confirmed in patients with FD. The relative abundance of duodenal Streptococcus (p=0.014) and reductions in stool Butyricicoccus (p=0.047) were confirmed. These changes in the gut microbiota were both correlated with symptom severity. Changes in dietary micronutrients, such as higher intake of valine, were associated with improved intestinal barrier function and microbiota. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the relationships among dietary nutrition, oral and gut microbiota, symptoms of FD, impaired function of the duodenal barrier, and inflammation. Assessing low-grade inflammation or increased permeability in the duodenal mucosa, along with changes in the abundance of stool Butyricicoccus, is anticipated to serve as effective biomarkers for enhancing the objectivity of FD diagnosis and monitoring.

  • Long-term Outcome of Asymptomatic Esophageal Eosinophilia

    Yugo Suzuki1 , Yorinari Ochiai1 , Daisuke Kikuchi1 , Mako Koseki1 , Kenichi Ohashi2 , Shu Hoteya1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Asymptomatic esophageal eosinophilia (aEE), characterized by eosinophil infiltration in the esophagus without clinical symptoms, has been reported as a precursor of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Nevertheless, no report exists on the long-term clinical course of the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the long-term clinical course of aEE over 5 years, including the symptomatic conversion rate and the effect of treatments. Methods: We reviewed 28 patients with aEE who had been followed up for over 5 years with endoscopic monitoring. The basal characteristics of patients were compared with those of 58 patients diagnosed with EoE during the same period. Patients’ clinicopathological findings were collected and examined. Results: No significant differences in basal characteristics and histopathological findings were observed between the patients with aEE and those with EoE. The median follow-up duration was 64 months. Among the 28 patients with aEE, seven were treated with proton pump inhibitor or potassium-competitive acid blocker and the remaining 21 opted for follow-up with no medication. Among the treated patients, six (85.7%) exhibited endoscopic and pathologic improvements. Among the cases followed up without medication, the findings worsened in two (9.5%), improved spontaneously in seven (33.3%), and were unchanged in 12 (57.1%), and three (14.3%) developed symptoms at a mean time of 40 months. Symptoms developed in cases where endoscopic and pathologic findings remained unchanged or worsened during follow-up. Conclusions: Some patients with aEE had improved findings without treatment, whereas others developed symptoms, emphasizing the importance of long-term monitoring and individualized treatment decisions.

  • Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Relation to Helicobacter pylori Infection and Eradication Status: A Large-Scale Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Eun-Bi Jeon1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Beom Joon Kim3 , In-Chang Hwang1 , Sang Bin Kim1 , Ji-Hyun Kim1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Yu Kyung Jun1 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,2 , Soyeon Ahn4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: A few studies have suggested the association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and ischemic stroke. However, the impact of HP eradication on stroke risk has not been well evaluated. This study aimed to assess the influence of HP eradication on the incidence of ischemic stroke, considering the potential effect of sex. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, from May 2003 to February 2023, and involved gastroscopy-based HP testing. Propensity score (PS) matching was employed to ensure balanced groups by matching patients in the HP eradicated group (n=2,803) in a 3:1 ratio with patients in the HP non-eradicated group (n=960). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke. Results: Among 6,664 patients, multivariate analysis after PS matching indicated that HP eradication did not significantly alter the risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.221 to 1.270; p=0.157). Sex-specific subgroup analyses, both univariate and multivariate, did not yield statistically significant differences. However, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a potential trend: the females in the HP eradicated group exhibited a lower incidence of ischemic stroke than those in the HP non-eradicated group, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.057). Conclusions: This finding suggests that HP eradication might not impact the risk of ischemic stroke. However, there was a trend showing that females potentially had a lower risk of ischemic stroke following HP eradication, though further investigation is required to establish definitive evidence.

  • The Possible Preventative Role of Lactate- and Butyrate-Producing Bacteria in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Chin-Hee Song1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Ryoung Hee Nam1 , Soo In Choi1 , Jae Young Jang1 , Eun Hye Kim1 , Jina Choi1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Sun Min Lee3 , Yeong-Jae Seok4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The gut microbiome has emerged as a key player that mechanistically links various risk factors to colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. However, the role of the gut microbiome in CRC pathogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with colorectal adenoma (AD) and CRC in subgroups based on sex and age. Methods: Study participants who visited the hospital for surveillance of CRC or gastrointestinal symptoms were prospectively enrolled, and the gut microbiome was analyzed based on fecal samples. Results: In terms of HC-AD-CRC sequence, commensal bacteria, including lactate-producing (Streptococcus salivarius) and butyrate-producing (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Anaerostipes hadrus, and Eubacterium hallii) bacteria, were more abundant in the HC group than in the AD and CRC groups. In the sex comparison, the female HC group had more lactate-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and Lactobacillus ruminis) than the male HC group. In age comparison, younger subjects had more butyrate-producing bacteria (Agathobaculum butyriciproducens and Blautia faecis) than the older subjects in the HC group. Interestingly, lactate-producing bacteria (B. catenulatum) were more abundant in females than males among younger HC group subjects. However, these sex- and age-dependent differences were not observed in the AD and CRC groups. Conclusions: The gut microbiome, specifically lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria, which were found to be abundant in the HC group, may play a role in preventing the progression of CRC. In particular, lactate-producing bacteria, which were found to be less abundant in healthy male controls may contribute to the higher incidence of CRC in males.

  • Effectiveness of Switching to Subcutaneous Infliximab in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Experiencing Intravenous Infliximab Failure

    June Hwa Bae1 , Jung-Bin Park1 , Ji Eun Baek1 , Seung Wook Hong1 , Sang Hyoung Park1,2 , Dong-Hoon Yang1 , Byong Duk Ye1,2 , Jeong-Sik Byeon1 , Seung-Jae Myung1 , Suk-Kyun Yang1,2 , Sung Wook Hwang1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Studies on elective switching to the subcutaneous (SC) formulation of infliximab revealed comparable efficacy and safety and higher infliximab level than those exhibited by intravenous (IV) infliximab. However, no studies have reported on the effectiveness of SC switching in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who experienced IV infliximab failure during maintenance treatment. Methods: This retrospective study included UC patients who had been switched to SC infliximab because of IV infliximab failure, between January 2021 and January 2023. Group A was defined as having clinically and biochemically active UC (secondary loss of response), and group B consisted of patients with stable symptoms but biochemically active UC. Results: Twenty-three patients met the inclusion criteria: 15 in group A and eight in group B. The serum infliximab levels significantly increased after SC switching in both groups. The electively switched group also exhibited increased infliximab levels after SC switching. Patients in group A showed improved partial Mayo score with a significant decrease in fecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein after switching. In group B, the fecal calprotectin level significantly decreased without clinical relapse after switching. A high proportion of patients (≥80%) in both groups achieved clinical and/or biochemical responses at the last follow-up. During the follow-up period, only two patients in group A discontinued SC infliximab, and only one complained of severe injection site reaction. Conclusions: In UC patients who experience IV infliximab failure during maintenance treatment, switching to SC infliximab may be a promising option because of better efficacy and safety.

  • A Novel Retractable Robotic Device for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Sang Hyun Kim1 , Chanwoo Kim2 , Bora Keum1 , Junghyun Im2 , Seonghyeon Won2 , Byung Gon Kim2 , Kyungnam Kim2 , Taebin Kwon2 , Daehie Hong2 , Han Jo Jeon1 , Hyuk Soon Choi1,3 , Eun Sun Kim1 , Yoon Tae Jeen1 , Hoon Jai Chun1 , Joo Ha Hwang3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Appropriate tissue tension and clear visibility of the dissection area using traction are essential for effective and safe endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). In this study, we developed a retractable robot-assisted traction device and evaluated its performance in colorectal ESD. Methods: An experienced endoscopist performed ESD 18 times on an ex vivo porcine colon using the robot and 18 times using the conventional method. The outcome measures were procedure time, dissection speed, procedure-related adverse events, and blind dissection rate. Results: Thirty-six colonic lesions were resected from ex vivo porcine colon samples. The total procedure time was significantly shorter in robot-assisted ESD (RESD) than in conventional ESD (CESD) (20.1±4.1 minutes vs 34.3±8.3 minutes, p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Despite advances in imaging and endoscopic technology, diagnostic modalities for small bowel tumors are simultaneously performed. We investigated the discrepancy rate between each modality and predictive factors of discrepancy in patients with definite small bowel tumors. Methods: Data of patients with definite small bowel tumors who underwent both device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) and computed tomography (CT) were retrieved from web-based enteroscopy registry database in Korea. Predictive risk factors associated with discrepancy were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 998 patients, 210 (21.0%) were diagnosed with small bowel tumor using DAE, in 193 patients with definite small bowel tumor, DAE and CT were performed. Of these patients, 12 (6.2%) showed discrepancy between examinations. Among 49 patients who underwent DAE and video capsule endoscopy (VCE) examination, 13 (26.5%) showed discrepancy between examinations. No significant independent risk factors were associated with concordance between DAE and CT in multivariate logistic regression analysis among the patients. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, red blood cell transfusion was negatively associated with concordance between DAE and VCE in patients with small bowel tumor (odds ratio, 0.163; 95% confidence interval, 0.026 to 1.004; p=0.050). Conclusions: For small bowel tumors, the discrepancy rate between DAE and CT was 6.2%, and 26.5% between DAE and VCE. Despite developments in cross-sectional imaging (VCE and DAE modalities), discrepancies still exist. For small bowel bleeding that require significant transfusion while showing insignificant VCE findings, DAE should be considered as the next diagnostic approach, considering the possibility of missed small bowel tumor.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Surgical Resection in Elderly Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Jin-Soo Lee1 , Dong Ah Park2 , Seungeun Ryoo2 , Jungeun Park2 , Gi Hong Choi3 , Jeong-Ju Yoo1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: With increased life expectancy, the management of elderly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients became a crucial issue, yet it is still challenging due to comorbidities and high surgical risks. While surgical resection is considered as primary treatment for eligible HCC patients, systematic evidence on its outcomes in elderly patients remains scarce. In this review, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety outcomes of surgical resection in elderly HCC patients. Methods: The studies included in this meta-analysis were selected from Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, CENTRAL, KoreaMed, KMbase, and KISS databases following a predefined protocol. Efficacy outcomes included overall survival and disease-free survival, while the safety outcomes included postoperative mortality and complications. Results: Patients in the elderly group (≥65 years) who underwent surgery exhibited non-inferior overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.74) and disease-free survival (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.08) compared to the non-elderly group. Overall postoperative mortality exhibited no statistical difference (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.31), but 30-day, 90-day, and in-hospital mortality were higher in the elderly group. The incidence of overall complications was higher in the elderly group (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.69). Sensitivity analysis for the super elderly group (≥80 years) showed significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to the non-super elderly group (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.16 to 5.45). Conclusions: The efficacy outcome of surgical resection in the elderly HCC patients was not worse than that in the non-elderly HCC patients, while in-hospital mortality and complications rates were higher. Therefore, surgical resection should be purposefully considered in the elderly population, with careful candidate selection.

  • Analysis of Factors Predicting the Real-World Efficacy of Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Byeong Geun Song , Myung Ji Goh , Wonseok Kang , Dong Hyun Sinn , Geum-Youn Gwak , Moon Seok Choi , Joon Hyeok Lee , Yong-Han Paik

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Atezolizumab and bevacizumab have shown promising results for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in clinical trials. In this study, the real-world efficacy and safety of atezolizumab and bevacizumab in treating advanced HCC were evaluated.Methods: In this retrospective study of patients at a Korean tertiary cancer center, 111 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B or C HCC received atezolizumab and bevacizumab as first-line therapy from May 2022 to June 2023. We assessed the progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events.Results: Patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function were included in the study. The median PFS was 6.5 months, with an ORR of 27% and a DCR of 63%. Several factors, including the albumin-bilirubin grade, age, C-reactive protein and α-fetoprotein in immunotherapy score, macrovascular invasion, lung metastases, and combined radiotherapy, were found to significantly influence PFS (p<0.05). Patients with peritoneal seeding showed an higher ORR. The safety profile was consistent with that observed in clinical trials.Conclusions: Atezolizumab and bevacizumab demonstrated real-world efficacy in the treatment of advanced HCC, with ORRs and DCRs aligning with those observed in clinical trials. Variations in PFS and ORR based on specific risk factors highlight the potential of atezolizumab and bevacizumab in precision medicine for advanced HCC.

  • The Association between Educational Attainment and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Chinese Adults: Findings from the REACTION Study

    Yuanyue Zhu1,2 , Long Wang1,2 , Lin Lin1,2 , Yanan Huo3 , Qin Wan4 , Yingfen Qin5 , Ruying Hu6 , Lixin Shi7 , Qing Su8 , Xuefeng Yu9 , Li Yan10 , Guijun Qin11 , Xulei Tang12 , Gang Chen13 , Shuangyuan Wang1,2 , Hong Lin1,2 , Xueyan Wu1,2 , Chunyan Hu1,2 , Mian Li1,2 , Min Xu1,2 , Yu Xu1,2 , Tiange Wang1,2 , Zhiyun Zhao1,2 , Zhengnan Gao14 , Guixia Wang15 , Feixia Shen16 , Xuejiang Gu16 , Zuojie Luo5 , Li Chen17 , Qiang Li18 , Zhen Ye6 , Yinfei Zhang19 , Chao Liu20 , Youmin Wang21 , Shengli Wu22 , Tao Yang23 , Huacong Deng24 , Lulu Chen25 , Tianshu Zeng25 , Jiajun Zhao26 , Yiming Mu27 , Weiqing Wang1,2 , Guang Ning1,2 , Yufang Bi1,2 , Yuhong Chen1,2 , Jieli Lu1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Low educational attainment is a well-established risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in developed areas. However, the association between educational attainment and the risk of NAFLD is less clear in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study including over 200,000 Chinese adults across mainland China was conducted. Information on education level and lifestyle factors were obtained through standard questionnaires, while NAFLD and advanced fibrosis were diagnosed using validated formulas. Outcomes included the risk of NAFLD in the general population and high probability of fibrosis among patients with NAFLD. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the risk of NAFLD and fibrosis across education levels. A causal mediation model was used to explore the potential mediators. Results: Comparing with those receiving primary school education, the multi-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for NAFLD were 1.28 (1.16 to 1.41) for men and 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for women with college education after accounting for body mass index. When considering waist circumference, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.94 (0.86 to 1.04) for men and 0.88 (0.80 to 0.97) for women, respectively. The proportions mediated by general and central obesity were 51.00% and 68.04% for men, while for women the proportions were 48.58% and 32.58%, respectively. Furthermore, NAFLD patients with lower educational attainment showed an incremental increased risk of advanced fibrosis in both genders. Conclusions: In China, a low education level was associated with a higher risk of prevalent NAFLD in women, as well as high probability of fibrosis in both genders.

  • Outcomes of Palliative Chemotherapy for Ampulla of Vater Adenocarcinoma: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Dong Kee Jang1 , So Jeong Kim2,3 , Hwe Hoon Chung4 , Jae Min Lee5 , Seung Bae Yoon6 , Jong-Chan Lee7 , Dong Woo Shin8 , Jin-Hyeok Hwang7 , Min Kyu Jung9 , Yoon Suk Lee10 , Hee Seung Lee2 , Joo Kyung Park4 , Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Palliative chemotherapy (PC) is not standardized for patients with advanced ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (AA). This multicenter, retrospective study evaluated first-line PC outcomes in patients with AA. Methods: Patients diagnosed with AA between January 2010 and December 2020 who underwent PC were enrolled from 10 institutions. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) according to the chemotherapy regimen were analyzed. Results: Of 255 patients (mean age, 64.0±10.0 years; male, 57.6%), 14 (5.5%) had locally advanced AA and 241 (94.5%) had metastatic AA. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) was administered as first-line chemotherapy to 192 patients (75.3%), whereas capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX) was administered to 39 patients (15.3%). The median OS of all patients was 19.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.3 to 22.3), and that of patients who received GP and CAPOX was 20.4 months (95% CI, 17.2 to 23.6) and 16.0 months (95% CI, 11.2 to 20.7), respectively. The median PFS of GP and CAPOX patients were 8.4 months (95% CI, 7.1 to 9.7) and 5.1 months (95% CI, 2.5 to 7.8), respectively. PC for AA demonstrated improved median outcomes in both OS and PFS compared to conventional bile duct cancers that included AA. Conclusions: While previous studies have shown mixed prognostic outcomes when AA was analyzed together with other biliary tract cancers, our study unveils a distinct clinical prognosis specific to AA on a large scale with systemic anticancer therapy. These findings suggest that AA is a distinct type of tumor, different from other biliary tract cancers, and AA itself could be expected to have a favorable response to PC.

  • Analysis of Recent Improvement of Survival Outcomes in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Who Underwent Upfront Surgery

    Jae Hyup Jung1 , Seung Hyun Won2 , Kwangrok Jung1 , Jun Suh Lee3 , Jong-Chan Lee1 , Jin Won Kim1 , Yoo‑Seok Yoon3 , Jin-Hyeok Hwang1 , Ho‑Seong Han3 , Jaihwan Kim1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Recently, patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) who underwent resection have exhibited improved survival outcomes, but comprehensive analysis is limited. We analyzed the trends of contributing factors. Methods: Data of patients with resected PC were retrospectively collected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database and separately at our institution. Cox regression analysis was conducted with the data from our institution a survival prediction score was calculated using the β coefficients. Results: Comparison between the periods 2013–2015 (n=3,255) and 2016–2018 (n=3,698) revealed a difference in the median overall survival (25.9 months vs not reached, p70 years, 1; elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 at diagnosis, 1; R1 resection, 1; stage N1 and N2, 1 and 3, respectively; no adjuvant treatment, 2; FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel after recurrence, 4; and other chemotherapy or supportive care only after recurrence, 5. The rate of R0 resection (69.7% vs 80.4%), use of adjuvant treatment (63.0% vs 74.3%), and utilization of FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (25.2% vs 47.3%) as palliative chemotherapeutic regimen, all increased between the two time periods, resulting in decreased total survival prediction score (mean: 7.32 vs 6.18, p=0.004). Conclusions: Strict selection of surgical candidates, more use of adjuvant treatment, and adoption of the latest combination regimens for palliative chemotherapy after recurrence were identified as factors of recent improvement.

  • Long-term Outcomes of Ampullary Adenoma According to Resected Margin Status after Endoscopic Papillectomy

    Junghwan Lee1 , Dongwook Oh2 , Dong-Wan Seo2 , Tae Jun Song2 , Do Hyun Park2 , Sung Koo Lee2 , Seung-Mo Hong3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is increasingly used as an alternative to surgery for managing benign ampullary neoplasms. However, post-EP resection margins are often positive or indeterminate, and there is no consensus on the management of ampullary adenomas with positive or indeterminate margins after EP. This study was designed to compare the long-term outcomes between resected margin-negative (RMN) and resected margin-positive/indeterminate (RMPI) groups and to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective analysis included patients with ampullary adenoma without evidence of adenocarcinoma who underwent EP between 2004 and 2016. The RMN and RMPI groups were compared for recurrence rates and recurrence-free duration during a mean follow-up duration of 71.7±39.8 months. Factors related to clinical outcomes were identified using multivariate analysis. Results: Of the 129 patients who underwent EP, 82 were in the RMN group and 47 were in the RMPI group. The RMPI group exhibited a higher recurrence rate compared to the RMN group (14.6% vs 34.0%, p=0.019). However, the recurrence-free duration was not significantly different between the groups (34.7±32.6 months vs 36.2±27.4 months, p=0.900). Endoscopic treatment successfully managed recurrence in both groups (75% vs 75%). Submucosal injection was a significant risk factor for residual lesions (hazard ratio, 4.11; p=0.009) and recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.57; p=0.021). Conclusions: Although ampullary adenomas with positive or indeterminate margins after EP showed a higher rate of recurrence at long-term follow-up, endoscopic treatment was effective with favorable long-term outcomes. Submucosal injection prior to resection was associated with increased risk of recurrence and residual lesions.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Impact of Korean Military Service on the Prevalence of Steatotic Liver Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Pre-enlistment and In-Service Health Check-Ups

    Jaejun Lee1,2 , Jae Hyeop Jung3 , Sung Jun Choi4 , Beomman Ha3 , Hyun Yang1,5 , Pil Soo Sung1,2 , Si Hyun Bae1,5 , Jeong-A Yu3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Risk of Hematologic Malignancies in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

    Xiaoshuai Zhou1 , Qiufeng Zhang2 , Dongying Wang2 , Zhiyi Xiang2 , Jiale Ruan2 , Linlin Tang3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Impact of Donor Age on Liver Transplant Outcomes in Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Cohort Study

    Jie Zhou1 , Danni Ye2 , Shenli Ren2 , Jiawei Ding2 , Tao Zhang2 , Siyao Zhang2 , Zheng Chen2 , Fangshen Xu2 , Yu Zhang1 , Huilin Zheng3 , Zhenhua Hu1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Clinical Outcomes of Secondary Duodenal Self-Expandable Metallic Stenting for Duodenal Stent Dysfunction in Patients with Malignant Duodenal Obstruction: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Hoonsub So1 , Hyun Don Joo2 , Tae Jun Song3 , Sung Woo Ko4 , Ho Seung Lee3 , Sung Hyun Cho3 , Dongwook Oh3 , Sung Yong Han5 , Dong Uk Kim5 , Dong-Wan Seo3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis in Korea: A Nationwide Survey

    Eui Joo Kim1,2 , Sang Hyub Lee3 , Min Kyu Jung4 , Dong Kee Jang5 , Jung Hyun Jo6 , Jae Min Lee7 , Jung Wan Choe8 , Sung Yong Han9 , Young Hoon Choi10 , Seong-Hun Kim11 , Jin Myung Park12 , Kyu-Hyun Paik13

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Gallstone Dissolution Effects of Combination Therapy with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Ursodeoxycholic Acid: A Randomized, Prospective, Preliminary Clinical Trial

    See Young Lee1 , Sung Ill Jang1 , Jae Hee Cho1 , Min Young Do1 , Su Yeon Lee1 , Arong Choi1 , Hye Sun Lee2 , Juyeon Yang2 , Dong Ki Lee1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Predictors of Choledocholithiasis in Cholecystectomy Patients and Their Cutoff Values and Prediction Model in Korea in Comparison with the 2019 ASGE Guidelines

    Jung Hun Woo1 , Hwanhyi Cho1 , Kihyun Ryu1 , Young Woo Choi1 , Sanghyuk Lee1 , Tae Hee Lee1 , Dae Sung Kim1 , In Seok Choi2 , Ju Ik Moon2 , Seung Jae Lee2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • The Circular RNA Circ_0043947 Promoted Gastric Cancer Progression by Sponging miR-384 to Regulate CREB1 Expression

    Chongxin Zhang1 , Fan Zhang1 , Yukun Li1 , Pengfei Yang1 , Yang Liu2 , Wenxiao Yang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Unraveling the Heterogeneity of CD8+ T-Cell Subsets in Liver Cirrhosis: Implications for Disease Progression

    Kepu Zheng1 , Leiyang Dai2 , Shengning Zhang1 , Yingpeng Zhao1 , Wang Li1 , Yang Gao1 , Yuanyi Mang1 , Lingfeng Jiao1 , Yu Tang3 , Jianghua Ran1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • A New Risk Prediction Model for Detecting Endoscopic Activity of Ulcerative Colitis

    Guoyu Guan1 , Sangdan Zhuoga1 , Songbai Zheng1 , Kangqiao Xu2 , Tingwen Weng3 , Wensi Qian4 , Danian Ji5 , Xiaofeng Yu6

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Precirrhotic Primary Biliary Cholangitis with Portal Hypertension: Bile Duct Injury Correlate

    Yi-Fan Hu1 , Shun-Xin Li1 , Hong-Li Liu2 , Zhi-Xiang Du1 , Shuang-Shuang Wang3 , Miao-Yang Chen1 , Li Wang1 , Qing-Fang Xiong1 , Yan-Dan Zhong1 , Du-Xian Liu4 , Yong-Feng Yang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Risk Assessment of Metachronous Gastric Neoplasm after Endoscopic Resection for Early Gastric Cancer According to Age at Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Seunghan Lee , Soo-Jeong Cho , Hyunsoo Chung , Bokyung Kim , Mi Jin Oh , Yun Suk Na , Jun Hee Lee , Jiyoon Kim , Sang Gyun Kim

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Rebamipide Prevents the Hemoglobin Drop Related to Mucosal-Damaging Agents at a Level Comparable to Proton Pump Inhibitors

    Ji Eun Kim1 , Yeong Chan Lee2 , Tae Se Kim1 , Eun Ran Kim1 , Sung Noh Hong1 , Young-Ho Kim1 , Kyunga Kim3 , Dong Kyung Chang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Influence of Cytokine Genetic Polymorphisms in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Inflammation According to Sex in South Korea

    Hee Jin Kim1 , Nayoung Kim2,3,4 , Jae Young Jang2,3,4 , Sihyun Kim2 , Jongchan Lee2 , Hyeon Jeong Oh5

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Molecular Activity of Inflammation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in the Microenvironment of Ulcerative Colitis

    Yu Kyung Jun1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Ji Hyun Park2 , Hyung Kyung Kim3,4 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Ji Ae Lee3 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Tumor-Derived Exosomal Circular RNA Pinin Induces FGF13 Expression to Promote Colorectal Cancer Progression through miR-1225-5p

    Xianghui Liao1 , Tuhua Li1 , Li Yang1 , Haiwen Li2 , Weiru Li1 , Yuting Liu3 , Zhong Xie1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Real-World Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding for Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Warfarin Users: A Distributed Network Analysis Using a Common Data Model

    Jae Myung Cha1 , Myoungsuk Kim1 , Hyeong Ho Jo2 , Won-Woo Seo3 , Sang Youl Rhee4 , Ji Hyun Kim5 , Gwang Ha Kim6 , Junseok Park7

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Immune-Enhancing Treatment among Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Patients with Metabolic Abnormalities: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Xiaofei Huang1,2 , Wenjian Mao3 , Xingxing Hu1,2 , Fengxia Qin1,2,4 , Hui Zhao1,2 , Aiping Zhang1,2 , Xinyu Wang3 , Christian Stoppe5,6 , Dandan Zhou1,2 , Lu Ke3,7 , Haibin Ni1,2 , Chinese Acute Pancreatitis Clinical Trials Group (CAPCTG)

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Differential Diagnosis of Thickened Gastric Wall between Hypertrophic Gastritis and Borrmann Type 4 Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Jun-young Seo1,2 , Do Hoon Kim1 , Ji Yong Ahn1 , Kee Don Choi1 , Hwa Jung Kim3 , Hee Kyong Na1 , Jeong Hoon Lee1 , Kee Wook Jung1 , Ho June Song1 , Gin Hyug Lee1 , Hwoon-Yong Jung1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The public fear of pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cancer (PC) appears to be growing. The aims of this study were to evaluate the causes of fear of pancreatic diseases and assess clinical outcomes of such individuals.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 249 individuals who visited the Pancreatobiliary Diseases Center at Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital due to the fear of pancreatic diseases between January 2019 and August 2021. Those referred from other departments or external medical facilities were excluded. Collected data included demographic details, comorbidities, causes of fear of pancreatic diseases, and the presence of pancreatic lesions in imaging studies.Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 22 to 82 years). One hundred eleven subjects (44.6%) were male. The causes of fear of pancreatic diseases were abdominal pain (n=144, 57.8%), back pain (n=114, 45.8%), body weight change (n=35, 14.1%), family history of pancreatic diseases (n=32, 12.9%), and others (n=39, 15.7%). Within the group with family history of pancreatic diseases, 25 subjects had a first-degree relative with PC. Of the 200 subjects who underwent imaging, there was no evidence of pancreatic diseases in 182 (91.0%). Pancreatic lesions identified were cystic lesions (n=15, 7.5%), non-specific calcification (n=1, 0.5%), lipoma (n=1, 0.5%), and solid tumor (n=1, 0.5%), later diagnosed as unresectable PC.Conclusions: Abdominal pain and back pain were the major causes of fear of pancreatic diseases. The prevalence of PC among those who underwent imaging was 0.5%. Such characteristics should be considered when consulting individuals with fear of pancreatic diseases.

Gut and Liver

Vol.18 No.4
July, 2024

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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Aims and Scope

Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

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