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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
  • 4. Articles
  • 5. Instructions for Authors
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  • 7. Ethical Standards
  • 8. Peer Review

    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.





Article Type

  • Current Status of Mucosal Imaging with Narrow-Band Imaging in the Esophagus

    Keng Hoong Chiam , Seon Ho Shin , Kun Cheong Choi et al.

    Abstract : Recent advances in endoscopic imaging of the esophagus have revolutionized the diagnostic capability for detecting premalignant changes and early esophageal malignancy. In this article, we review the practical application of narrow-band imaging focusing on diseases of the esophagus, including Barrett’s esophagus, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Friend or Foe?

    Dexi Zhou , Jiajie Luan , Cheng Huang et al.

    Abstract : Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and it has diverse etiologies with multiple mechanisms. The diagnosis of HCC typically occurs at advanced stages when there are limited therapeutic options. Hepatocarcinogenesis is considered a multistep process, and hepatic macrophages play a critical role in the inflammatory process leading to HCC. Emerging evidence has shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are crucial components defining the HCC immune microenvironment and represent an appealing option for disrupting the formation and development of HCC. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the polarization and function of TAMs in the pathogenesis of HCC, as well as the mechanisms underlying TAM-related anti-HCC therapies. Eventually, novel insights into these important aspects of TAMs and their roles in the HCC microenvironment might lead to promising TAM-focused therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  • Abstract : Acute cholecystitis and several gallbladder stone-related conditions, such as impacted common bile duct stones, cholangitis, and biliary pancreatitis, are common medical conditions in daily practice. An early cholecystectomy or drainage procedure with delayed cholecystectomy is the current standard of treatment based on published clinical guidelines. Cirrhosis is not only a condition of chronically impaired hepatic function but also has systemic effects in patients. In cirrhotic individuals, several predisposing factors, including changes in the bile acid composition, increased nucleation of bile, and decreased motility of the gallbladder, contribute to the formation of biliary stones and the possibility of symptomatic cholelithiasis, which is an indication for surgical treatment. In addition to these predisposing factors for cholelithiasis, systemic effects and local anatomic consequences related to cirrhosis lead to anesthesiologic risks and perioperative complications in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, the treatment of the aforementioned biliary conditions in cirrhotic patients has become a challenging issue. In this review, we focus on cholecystectomy for cirrhotic patients and summarize the surgical indications, risk stratification, surgical procedures, and surgical outcomes specific to cirrhotic patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Point mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene have been associated with Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of these point mutations and to investigate the role of different point mutations in the success of eradication therapy. Methods: We retrospectively investigated a total of 464 consecutive patients who underwent an endoscopic examination and dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction for H. pylori between June 2014 and October 2019. For 289 patients with negative point mutations, standard triple therapy was used in 287 patients, and the bismuth-quadruple regimen was used in two patients. For 175 patients with positive point mutations (A2142G, A2143G, and both mutations), standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies were used in 37 patients and 138 patients, respectively. Results: The eradication rates of standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies showed no significant difference in mutation-negative patients or those with the A2142G point mutation. However, the eradication rate with bismuth-quadruple therapy was significantly higher than that with standard triple therapy in the group with the A2143G mutation or with the double mutation. The eradication rates for standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies, respectively, were 25.8% and 92.1% in the per-protocol group (p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. Methods: The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. Results: In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation is the most important mechanism involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). An endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) is a device used to quantify EGJ distensibility in routine endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to assess the usefulness of EndoFLIP for the diagnosis of GERD compared to normal controls. Methods: We analyzed EndoFLIP data from 204 patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD), 310 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and 277 normal subjects. EndoFLIP uses impedance planimetry to measure 16 cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in conjunction with the corresponding intrabag pressure within a 4.6 cm cylindrical segment of a fluid-filled bag. The EGJ distensibility was assessed using 40 mL volume-controlled distensions. Results: The mean distensibility index values were 13.98 mm2/mm Hg in ERD patients, 11.42 mm2/mm Hg in NERD patients, and 9.1 mm2/mm Hg in normal subjects. There were significant differences in EGJ distensibility among the three groups (p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Unlike other gastrointestinal tract cancers, there are relatively few reports on the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and TWIST, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of TWIST expression in CTCs in patients with ESCC. Methods: Peripheral blood samples for CTC analyses were prospectively obtained from 52 patients with ESCC prior to treatment between September 2017 and September 2019. CTCs were detected using a centrifugal microfluidic system based on a fluid-assisted separation technique, and CTCs positive for TWIST on immunostaining were defined as TWIST (+) CTCs. Results: Of the 52 patients with ESCC, CTCs and TWIST (+) CTCs were detected in 44 patients (84.6%) and 39 patients (75.0%), respectively. The CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts were significantly higher in patients aged >65 years and those who had a large tumor (>3 cm) than in those aged ≤65 years and those who had a small tumor (≤3 cm), respectively. There were no differences in CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts according to tumor location, histologic grade, or TNM stage. TWIST (+) CTCs were significantly associated with histologic grade; a proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs ≥0.5 was significantly associated with advanced histologic grade. Other clinicopathologic characteristics such as sex, age, tumor location, tumor size, and TNM stages were not significantly associated with TWIST (+) CTCs. Conclusions: Our study showed that TWIST (+) CTCs were frequently detected in patients with ESCC, and a high proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs was associated with poor differentiation.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The intensities of injection pain resulting from the use of long- and medium-chain triglyceride (LCT/MCT) propofol and conventional LCT propofol during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) have yet to be compared. We aimed to determine the pain intensity caused by different formulations of propofol and to evaluate the formulation that would be preferred by patients as a sedative agent during their next procedure. Methods: This study was a single-center, randomized, controlled, and double-blind trial. Pain intensity was estimated 30 seconds after propofol injection by an examiner who was blinded to the group assignment using a numeric (0–10) pain rating scale (NPRS). After 1 week, the patients were asked whether they could recall the pain and were willing to receive the same agent for their next EGD. Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients were randomly assigned to LCT/MCT or LCT group. Although there was no significant difference in pain incidence between the LCT/MCT and LCT groups (52.9% vs 65.6%, p=0.156), the pain intensity was significantly lower in the LCT/MCT group (NPRS median [interquartile range]; 1 (0–2) vs 2 (0–5), p=0.005). After 1 week, fewer patients in the LCT/MCT group recalled the pain (19.1% vs 63.9%, p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The global trend of an expanding aged population has increased concerns about complications correlated with gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in elderly patients; however, there have been few reports published on this issue. Methods: In this retrospective, observational cohort study performed between 2012 and 2017, serious complications of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, and colonoscopic polypectomy were compared between patients according to age (≥65 years vs 18–64 years). We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment-National Patient Samples database, previously converted to the standardized Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership-Common Data Model. Serious complications within 30 days of the procedure included both GI complications (bleeding and perforation) and non-GI complications (cerebrovascular accident [CVA], acute myocardial infarction [AMI], congestive heart failure [CHF], and death). Results: A total of 387,647 patients who underwent EGD, 241,094 who underwent colonoscopy, and 89,059 who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy were assessed as part of this investigation. During the study period, endoscopic procedures in the older group steadily increased in number in all endoscopy groups (all p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) can be applied to relieve colorectal obstruction secondary to incurable primary colorectal cancer or extracolonic malignancy. We aimed to identify factors associated with clinical success and the reintervention-free survival (RFS) after palliative stenting. Methods: Cases of palliative SEMS placement between 2005 and 2019 were retrieved from the institutional database and reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression and log-rank testing followed by Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to investigate the predictors of the clinical success of palliative stenting and factors associated with RFS, respectively. Results: A total of 593 patients underwent palliative stenting for malignant colonic obstruction (MCO). The technical and clinical success rates were 92.9% and 83.5%, respectively. Peritoneal carcinomatosis was a predictor of clinical failure (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.65) in the multivariate analysis. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.48; 95% CI, 1.69 to 3.64) and stent expansion >90% on day 1 (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.50) were associated with a shorter RFS. Neither clinical success nor RFS was associated with extracolonic malignancy. Re-obstruction, stent migration, and perforation were responsible for most reinterventions after clinically successful palliative stenting. Conclusions: In patients requiring palliative stenting for MCO, peritoneal carcinomatosis was associated with both clinical failure and short RFS. Stent expansion >90% on postprocedural day 1 was another predictor of a short RFS after clinically successful stenting. A large prospective study is warranted to establish factors associated with RFS after successful palliative stenting for MCO.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) can develop during treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with immunogenicity of anti-TNF agents in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and observe the clinical course of ADA-positive patients. Methods: Pediatric IBD patients receiving maintenance treatment with anti-TNF agents who had been tested for ADAs against infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADL) were included in this crosssectional study. Factors associated with ADA positivity were investigated by analyzing clinicodemographic, laboratory, and treatment-related factors. Results: A total of 76 patients (Crohn’s disease, 65; ulcerative colitis, 11) were included. Among these, 59 and 17 patients were receiving IFX and ADL, respectively. ADAs were found in 10 patients (13.2%), all of whom were receiving IFX. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, the IFX trough level (TL) was associated with ADA positivity (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.51; p=0.002). According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cutoff of the IFX TLs for stratifying patients based on the presence of ADAs against IFX was 1.88 μg/mL (area under curve, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.873 to 1.000; sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 95.9%; p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Most prognostic prediction models for patients with liver cirrhosis include serum total bilirubin (TB) level as a component. This study investigated prognostic performance of serum direct bilirubin (DB) and developed new DB level-based prediction models for cirrhosis. Methods: A total of 983 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis were included. DB-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was calculated using MELD score formula, with serum DB level replacing TB level. Results: Mean age of study population was 56.1 years. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying condition (471 patients, 47.9%). Within 6 months, 144 patients (14.6%) died or received liver transplantation due to severe liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for prediction of 6-month mortality with DB level was significantly higher than that with TB level (p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Recent data indicate the presence of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver enzymes. Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of 874 COVID-19 patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals from February 20 to April 14, 2020. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and treatment outcomes were collected until April 30, 2020, and compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferases. Results: Abnormal aminotransferase levels were observed in 362 patients (41.1%), of which 94 out of 130 (72.3%) and 268 out of 744 (36.0%) belonged to the severe and non-severe COVID- 19 categories, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for male patients, patients with a higher body mass index, patients with severe COVID-19 status, and patients with lower platelet counts were 1.500 (1.029 to 2.184, p=0.035), 1.097 (1.012 to 1.189, p=0.024), 2.377 (1.458 to 3.875, p=0.001), and 0.995 (0.993 to 0.998, p>0.001), respectively, indicating an independent association of these variables with elevated aminotransferase levels. Lopinavir/ ritonavir and antibiotic use increased the odds ratio of abnormal aminotransferase levels after admission (1.832 and 2.646, respectively, both p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Acute cholangitis (AC) is a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection, and timely antimicrobial treatment, faster than that achieved with bacterial cultures, is recommended. Although the current guidelines refer to empirical antimicrobial treatment, various kinds of antimicrobial agents have been cited because of insufficient analyses on the spectrum of pathogens in AC. Enterococcus spp. is one of the most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria from the bile of patients with AC, but its risk factors have not been extensively studied. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of AC caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Methods: Patients with AC who were hospitalized in a Japanese tertiary center between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients’ first AC episodes in the hospital were evaluated. Results: A total of 266 patients with AC were identified. E. faecalis and/or E. faecium was isolated in 56 (21%) episodes of AC. Prior endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST), the presence of a biliary stent, prior cholecystectomy, and past intensive care unit admission were more frequently observed in AC patients with E. faecalis and/or E. faecium than in those without such bacteria. Prior EST was identified as an independent risk factor for AC caused by E. faecalis and/or E. faecium in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Given the intrinsic resistance of E. faecalis and E. faecium to antibiotics, clinicians should consider empirical therapy with anti-enterococcal antibiotics for patients with prior EST.

  • A Meta-analysis of Slow Pull versus Suction for Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Acquisition

    Yousuke Nakai , Tsuyoshi Hamada , Ryunosuke Hakuta et al.

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition is widely utilized as a diagnostic modality for intra-abdominal masses, but there remains debate regarding which suction technique, slow pull (SP) or conventional suction (CS), is better. A meta-analysis of reported studies was conducted to compare the diagnostic yields of SP and CS during EUS-guided tissue acquisition. Methods: We conducted a systematic electronic search using MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify clinical studies comparing SP and CS. We meta-analyzed accuracy, sensitivity, blood contamination and cellularity using the random-effects model. Results: A total of 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, four prospective studies, and six retrospective studies) with 1,616 cases were included in the analysis. Compared to CS, there was a trend toward better accuracy (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 2.27; p=0.07) and sensitivity (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.93; p=0.08) with SP and a significantly lower rate of blood contamination (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.69; p

  • Endoscopic Techniques for Gallbladder Drainage: Never without My Endoscopic Ultrasound

    Gianmarco Marocchi , Andrea Lisotti , and Pietro Fusaroli

Gut and Liver

Vol.15 No.4
July, 2021

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212


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Aims and Scope

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

Editorial Office