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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.





Article Type

  • Abstract : Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease of unknown origin that requires long-term treatment. The optical duration of maintenance treatment once remission has been achieved remains unclear. When discussing a de-escalation strategy, not only the likelihood of relapse but also, the outcome of retreatment for relapse after de-escalation should be considered. Previous evidence has demonstrated controversial results for risk factors for relapse after de-escalation due to the various definitions of remission and relapse. In fact, endoscopic or histologic remission has been suggested as a treatment target; however, it might not always be indicative of a successful drug withdrawal. For better risk stratification of relapse after de-escalation, it may be necessary to evaluate both the current and previous treatments. Following de-escalation, biomarkers should be closely monitored. In addition to the risk of relapse, a comprehensive understanding of the overall outcome, such as the long-term safety, patient quality of life, and impact on healthcare costs, is necessary. Therefore, a shared decision-making with patients on a case-by-case basis is imperative.

  • Microbial Metabolite Dysbiosis and Colorectal Cancer

    Patrick Niekamp , Chang H. Kim

    Abstract : The global burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to continuously increase. Through research performed in the past decades, the effects of various environmental factors on CRC development have been well identified. Diet, the gut microbiota and their metabolites are key environmental factors that profoundly affect CRC development. Major microbial metabolites with a relevance for CRC prevention and pathogenesis include dietary fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids, bile acid derivatives, indole metabolites, polyamines, trimethylamine-N-oxide, formate, and hydrogen sulfide. These metabolites regulate various cell types in the intestine, leading to an altered intestinal barrier, immunity, chronic inflammation, and tumorigenesis. The physical, chemical, and metabolic properties of these metabolites along with their distinct functions to trigger host receptors appear to largely determine their effects in regulating CRC development. In this review, we will discuss the current advances in our understanding of the major CRC-regulating microbial metabolites, focusing on their production and interactive effects on immune responses and tumorigenesis in the colon.

  • The Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Hepatology

    Saleh A. Alqahtani1,2 , Floriane Ausloos3 , Ji Seok Park4 , Sunguk Jang4

    Abstract : Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been an indispensable and widely used diagnostic tool in several medical fields, including gastroenterology, cardiology, and urology, due to its diverse therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Many studies show that it is effective and safe in patients with liver conditions where conventional endoscopy or cross-sectional imaging are inefficient or when surgical interventions pose high risks. In this article, we present a review of the current literature for the different diagnostic and therapeutic applications of EUS in liver diseases and their complications and discuss the potential future application of artificial intelligence analysis of EUS.

  • Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Endoscopic Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in the Stomach

    Moon Kyung Joo1 , Jong-Jae Park1 , Yeon Ho Lee1 , Beom Jae Lee1 , Seong Min Kim1 , Won Shik Kim1 , Ah Young Yoo1 , Hoon Jai Chun2 , Sang Woo Lee3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the stomach. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment for gastric GISTs.Methods: This is a single center, retrospective study that enrolled 135 cases of gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) resected by endoscopic procedures and confirmed as GISTs by histopathology from March 2005 to July 2019. The immediate and long-term clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.Results: The mean patient age was 57.9 years, and the mean tumor size was 2.1 cm. Of the tumors, 43.0% were located in the body, followed by the fundus (26.7%) and cardia (17.0%). Most tumors (85.2%) were resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection, followed by endoscopic mucosal resection (6.7%), submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (5.9%), and endoscopic full-thickness resection (2.2%). Macroperforation occurred in 4.4% and microperforation in 6.7% of the cases. The R0 resection rate was 15.6%. However, the rate of complete resection by the endoscopic view was 90.4%, of which 54.8% of cases were in the very-low-risk group, followed by the low-risk group (28.1%), intermediate-risk group (11.9%), and high-risk group (5.2%). During 36.5 months of follow-up, recurrence was found in four (3.4%) of the 118 patients who were monitored for more than 6 months (low-risk group, 1/37 [2.7%]; intermediate-risk group, 2/11 [18.2%]; high-risk group, 1/6 [16.7%]).Conclusions: Endoscopic treatment of a GIST appears to be a feasible procedure in selected cases. However, additional surgery should be considered if the pathologic results correspond to intermediate- or high-risk groups.

  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Control, Noninferiority, Multicenter, Phase 4 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Esomeprazole/Sodium Bicarbonate 20/800 mg in Patients with Nonerosive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Su Hyun Park1 , Kang Nyeong Lee1 , Oh Young Lee1 , Myung Gyu Choi2 , Jie-Hyun Kim3 , In-Kyung Sung4 , Jae Young Jang5 , Kyung Sik Park6 , Hoon Jai Chun7 , Eun Young Kim8 , Jun Kyu Lee9 , Jin Seok Jang10 , Gwang Ha Kim11 , Su Jin Hong12 , Yong Chan Lee13 , Suck-Chei Choi14 , Hyun Soo Kim15 , Tae Oh Kim16 , Gwang Ho Baik17 , Yong Cheol Jeon18

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Efficacy of proton pump inhibitors is limited in patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole with sodium bicarbonate and esomeprazole alone. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority comparative study. A total of 379 patients with NERD were randomly allocated to receive either Esoduo (esomeprazole 20 mg with sodium bicarbonate 800 mg) or Nexium (esomeprazole 20 mg) once daily for 4 weeks from January 2019 to December 2019. The patients had a history of heartburn for at least 2 days in the week before randomization as well as in the last 3 months and no esophageal mucosal breaks on endoscopy. The primary endpoint was a complete cure of heartburn at week 4. The secondary and exploratory endpoints as well as the safety profiles were compared in the groups at weeks 2 and 4. Results: A total of 355 patients completed the study (180 in the Esoduo group and 175 in the Nexium group). The proportions of patients without heartburn in the entire 4th week of treatment were not different between the two groups (33.33% in the Esoduo group and 35% in the Nexium group, p=0.737). There were no significant differences in most of the secondary and exploratory endpoints as well as the safety profiles. Conclusions: Esoduo is as effective and safe as Nexium for managing typical symptoms in patients with NERD ( identifier: NCT03928470).

  • Comparison Trial between I-SCAN-Optical Enhancement and Chromoendoscopy for Evaluating the Horizontal Margins of Gastric Epithelial Neoplasms

    Myeongseok Koh1 , Jong Yoon Lee1 , Song-Hee Han2 , Seong Woo Jeon3 , Su Jin Kim4 , Joo Young Cho5 , Seong Hwan Kim5 , Jae Young Jang6 , Gwang Ho Baik7 , Jin Seok Jang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a widely used treatment for gastric epithelial neoplasms. Accurate delineation of the horizontal margins is necessary for the complete resection of gastric epithelial neoplasms. Recently, image-enhanced endoscopy has been used to evaluate horizontal margins of gastric epithelial neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether I-SCAN-optical enhancement (I-SCAN-OE) is superior to chromoendoscopy in evaluating the horizontal margin of gastric epithelial neoplasms.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, and randomized trial. The participants were divided into two groups: I-SCAN-OE and chromoendoscopy. For both groups, we first evaluated the horizontal margins of early gastric cancer or high-grade dysplasia using white-light imaging, and then evaluated, the horizontal margins using I-SCAN-OE or chromoendoscopy. We devised a unique scoring method based on the pathological results obtained after endoscopic submucosal dissection to accurately evaluate the horizontal margins of gastric epithelial neoplasms. The delineation scores of both groups were compared, as were the ratios of positive/negative horizontal margins.Results: In total, 124 patients were evaluated for gastric epithelial neoplasms, of whom 112 were enrolled in the study. A total of 112 patients participated in the study, and 56 were assigned to each group (1:1). There was no statistically significant difference in the delineation scores between the groups (chromoendoscopy, 7.80±1.94; I-SCAN-OE, 8.23±2.24; p=0.342).Conclusions: I-SCAN-OE did not show superiority over chromoendoscopy in delineating horizontal margins of gastric epithelial neoplasms.

  • Impact of Body Mass Index on Survival Depending on Sex in 14,688 Patients with Gastric Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in South Korea

    Hyeong Ho Jo1,2 , Nayoung Kim1,3 , Jieun Jang4 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Jaehyung Park1 , Young Mi Park5 , Soyeon Ahn5 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,3 , Hyeon Jeong Oh6 , Hye Seung Lee7 , Young Suk Park8 , Sang-Hoon Ahn8 , Yun-Suhk Suh8 , Do Joong Park8,9 , Hyung Ho Kim8,9 , Ji-Won Kim1 , Jin Won Kim1 , Keun-Wook Lee1,3 , Won Chang10 , Ji Hoon Park10 , Yoon Jin Lee10 , Kyoung Ho Lee10,11 , Young Hoon Kim10,11

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The incidence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) shows sex difference. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on GC survival depending on sex.Methods: The sex, age, location, histology, TNM stages, BMI, and survival were analyzed in GC patients from May 2003 to February 2020 at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.Results: Among 14,688 patients, there were twice as many males (66.6%) as females (33.4%). However, under age 40 years, females (8.6%) were more prevalent than males (3.1%). Cardia GC in males showed a U-shaped distribution for underweight (9.6%), normal (6.4%), overweight (6.1%), obesity (5.6%), and severe obesity (9.3%) but not in females (p=0.003). Females showed decreased proportion of diffuse-type GC regarding BMI (underweight [59.9%], normal [56.8%], overweight [49.5%], obesity [44.8%], and severe obesity [41.7%]), but males did not (p

  • Proposal of a Risk Scoring System to Facilitate the Treatment of Enteroenteric Intussusception in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    Nianjun Xiao1 , Tongzhen Zhang1 , Jing Zhang1 , Jinlong Zhang2 , Hao Li3 , Shoubin Ning1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Enteroenteric intussusception in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (EI-PJS) is traditionally treated by surgery. However, enteroscopic treatment is a minimally invasive approach worth attempting. We aimed to develop a risk scoring system to facilitate decision-making in the treatment of EI-PJS. Methods: This was a single-center case-control study, including 80 patients diagnosed with PJS and coexisting intussusception between January 2015 and January 2021 in Air Force Medical Center. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors and allocated different points to each subcategory of risk factors; the total score of individuals ranged from 0 to 9 points. Then, we constructed a risk stratification system based on the possibility of requiring surgery: 0–3 points for “low-risk,” 4–6 points for “moderate-risk,” and 7–9 points for “high-risk.” Results: Sixty-one patients (76.25%) were successfully treated with enteroscopy. Sixteen patients (20.0%) failed enteroscopic treatment and subsequently underwent surgery, and three patients (3.75%) received surgery directly. Abdominal pain, the diameter of the responsible polyp, and the length of intussusception were independent risk factors for predicting the possibility of requiring surgery. According to the risk scoring system, the incidence rates of surgery were 4.44% in the low-risk tier, 30.43% in the moderate-risk tier, and 83.33% in the high-risk tier. From low- to high-risk tiers, the trend of increasing risk was significant (p

  • Hsa_circ_0003602 Contributes to the Progression of Colorectal Cancer by Mediating the miR-149-5p/SLC38A1 Axis

    Rong Wu1 , Shiyu Tang2 , Qiuxiao Wang3 , Pengfei Kong4 , Fang Liu3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: We aimed to investigate the role and working mechanism of Homo sapiens circular RNA_0003602 (hsa_circ_0003602) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development.Methods: The expression of circ_0003602, miR-149-5p, and solute carrier family 38 member 1 (SLC38A1) was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RNase R assays were conducted to determine the characteristics of circ_0003602. CCK-8 assays, flow cytometry analysis, transwell invasion assays, wound healing assays and tube formation assays were employed to evaluate cell viability, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. All protein levels were examined by Western blot or immunohistochemistry assay. The glutamine metabolism was monitored by corresponding glutamine, α-ketoglutarate and glutamate assay kits. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was utilized to confirm the targeted combination between miR-149-5p and circ_0003602 or SLC38A1. A xenograft tumor model was established to analyze the role of circ_0003602 in CRC tumor growth in vivo.Results: Circ_0003602 was upregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines. Circ_0003602 silencing suppressed CRC cell viability, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and glutaminolysis; induced cell apoptosis in vitro; and blocked tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, circ_0003602 directly interacted with miR-149-5p to negatively regulate its expression, and circ_0003602 knockdown suppressed the malignant behaviors of CRC cells largely by upregulating miR-149-5p. MiR-149-5p directly bound to the 3’ untranslated region of SLC38A1 to induce its degradation, and miR-149-5p overexpression reduced the malignant potential of CRC cells largely by downregulating SLC38A1. Circ_0003602 positively regulated SLC38A1 expression by sponging miR-149-5p in CRC cells.Conclusions: Circ_0003602 knockdown impedes CRC development by targeting the miR-149-5p/SLC38A1 axis, which provides a novel theoretical basis and new insights for CRC treatment.

  • Long-term Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Profile and Seroclearance after Severe Acute Flares of Chronic Hepatitis B

    Ka-Yin Hui1 , James Fung1 , Ka-Shing Cheung1,2 , Lung-Yi Mak1,3 , Wai-Kay Seto1,2,3 , Man-Fung Yuen1,3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance remains uncommon in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. During acute flares of CHB (AFOCHB), alanine aminotransferase elevation reflects a mounting immune response toward viral clearance. We hypothesized that severe AFOCHB is associated with a greater quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg) decline and HBsAg seroclearance rate. Methods: A total of 75 patients with severe AFOCHB with alanine aminotransferase 10× the upper limit of normal were matched to a control group by age and sex in a 1:2 ratio. qHBsAg levels were measured at the time of flare and annually (for both cases and controls) until the last follow-up. Results: The median follow-up times for patients with severe AFOCHB and controls were 8.8 and 10.5 years, respectively. The cumulative rate of HBsAg seroclearance was higher in the severe AFOCHB group than in the control group (11.8% vs 5.0%, p=0.04) despite the former group having a trend of a higher baseline median qHBsAg (3,127 IU/mL vs 1,178 IU/mL, p=0.076). Compared with the control group, the severe AFOCHB group had a greater annual qHBsAg reduction (–242.4 IU/mL/yr vs –47.3 IU/mL/yr, p=0.002). Increasing age (p=0.049), lower baseline qHBsAg (p=0.002), and severe AFOCHB (p=0.014) were independently associated with HBsAg seroclearance. However, the cumulative rate of hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly higher in the severe AFOCHB group than in the control group (15.8% vs 1.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Severe AFOCHB was associated with a greater incidence of HBsAg seroclearance and qHBsAg decline. However, it was associated with a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  • Risk of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reactivation in HBsAg-Negative, Anti-HBc-Negative Patients Receiving Rituximab for Autoimmune Diseases in HBV Endemic Areas

    Ting-Yuan Lan1 , Yen-Chun Lin2 , Tai-Chung Tseng3,4,5 , Hung-Chih Yang3 , Jui-Hung Kao2 , Chiao-Feng Cheng2 , Tai-Ju Lee6 , Shang-Chin Huang7 , Cheng-Hsun Lu6 , Ko-Jen Li6 , Song-Chou Hsieh6

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Rituximab is known to be associated with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation rate in patients with resolved HBV infection and hematologic malignancy. However, data regarding HBV reactivation (HBVr) in rheumatic patients receiving rituximab is limited. To assess the HBVr rate in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients receiving rituximab for autoimmune diseases in a large real-world cohort.Methods: From March 2006 to December 2019, 900 patients with negative HBsAg receiving at least one cycle of rituximab for autoimmune diseases in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcome and factors associated with HBVr were analyzed.Results: After a median follow-up period of 3.3 years, 21 patients developed HBVr, among whom 17 patients were positive for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and four were negative. Thirteen patients had clinical hepatitis flare, while eight patients had HBsAg seroreversion without hepatitis. Old age, anti-HBc positivity, undetectable serum hepatitis B surface antibody level at rituximab initiation and a higher average rituximab dose were associated with a higher HBVr rate. There was no significant difference in the HBVr risk between rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Among anti-HBc-negative patients, subjects without HBV vaccination at birth had an increased risk of HBVr (4/368, 1.1%) compared with those who received vaccination (0/126, 0%).Conclusions: In HBV endemic areas where occult HBV is prevalent, anti-HBc-negative patients, may still be at risk for HBVr after rituximab exposure. HBVr may still be considered in HBsAg-negative patients developing abnormal liver function after rituximab exposure, even in patients with negative anti-HBc.

  • Age, Sex, and Body Mass Index Should Be Considered When Assessing Spleen Length in Patients with Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease

    Han Ah Lee1 , Seung Up Kim2 , Jihwan Lim3 , Moon Young Kim4 , Sang Gyune Kim5 , Ki Tae Suk6 , Jae Young Jang5 , Hyonggin An7 , Hyung Joon Yim3 , Yeon Seok Seo3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: We investigated the factors related to spleen length and the diagnostic accuracy of a model using spleen length corrected by related factors, for the prediction of varices needing treatment (VNT). Methods: Various prediction models for VNT including spleen length were analyzed in the cohort of compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD), defined as liver stiffness (LS) ≥10 kPa in a recent study. The associated factors for spleen length were identified in healthy subjects to improve the prediction of VNT. Results: Among 1,218 cACLD patients, VNT was noted in 249 patients (20.4%). On multivariate analysis, longer spleen length, lower platelet count, and higher LS value were independent predictors for VNT (all p

  • Factors Affecting the Learning Curve in the Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Sampling of Solid Pancreatic Lesions: A Prospective Study

    Marcel Razpotnik1 , Simona Bota1 , Mathilde Kutilek2 , Gerolf Essler1 , Christian Urak1 , Julian Prosenz2 , Jutta Weber-Eibel1 , Andreas Maieron2 , Markus Peck-Radosavljevic1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Endosonography is associated with a long learning curve. We aimed to assess variables that may influence the diagnostic outcomes in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration/biopsy (EUS-FNA/B) of solid pancreatic tumors regarding the level of endoscopists' experience. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing EUS-guided puncture of solid pancreatic tumors (eight endosonographers, including six trainees) were prospectively enrolled. An experienced endosonographer was defined as having performed at least 250 EUS examinations, including 75 FNA/Bs. The final diagnosis was determined by cytopathology, histopathology, or clinical follow-up. Results: In total, 283 EUS-FNA/Bs of solid pancreatic tumors (75.6% malignant) in 239 patients (median age 69 years, 57.6% males) were enrolled. Trainees performed 149/283 (52.7%) of the interventions. Accuracy and sensitivity for detecting malignancy were significantly higher in the expert group than in the trainee group (85.8% vs 73.2%, p=0.01 and 82.5% vs 68.4%, p=0.02). Solid lesions evaluated by an expert using FNB needles showed the best odds for a correct diagnosis (odds ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 8.23; p=0.02). More experienced endoscopists achieved better accuracy in sampling via the transduodenal approach (86.7% vs 68.5%, p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: A high-quality sample allows for next-generation sequencing and the administration of more tailored precision medicine treatments. We aimed to evaluate whether heparinized wet suction can obtain higher quality samples than the standard dry-suction method during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsy of pancreatic masses.Methods: A prospective randomized crossover study was conducted. Patients with a solid pancreatic mass were randomly allocated to receive either heparinized wet suction first or dry suction first. For each method, two needle passes were made, followed by a switch to the other method for a total of four needle punctures. The primary outcome was the aggregated white tissue length. Histological blood contamination, diagnostic performance and adverse events were analyzed as secondary outcomes. In addition, the correlation between white tissue length and the extracted DNA amount was analyzed.Results: A total of 50 patients were enrolled, and 200 specimens were acquired (100 with heparinized wet suction and 100 with dry suction), with one minor bleeding event. The heparinized wet suction approach yielded specimens with longer aggregated white tissue length (11.07 mm vs 7.96 mm, p=0.001) and less blood contamination (p=0.008). A trend towards decreasing tissue quality was observed for the 2nd pass of the dry-suction method, leading to decreased diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy, although the accumulated diagnostic performance was comparable between the two suction methods. The amount of extracted DNA correlated positively to the white tissue length (p=0.001, Spearman̕s ρ=0.568).Conclusions: Heparinized wet suction for EUS tissue acquisition of solid pancreatic masses can yield longer, bloodless, DNA-rich tissue without increasing the incidence of adverse events ( identifier NCT04707560).

  • Current Practice Patterns of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Sampling for Pancreatic Solid Mass in Korea: Outcomes of a National Survey

    Dong-Won Ahn1 , Hyung Ku Chon2 , Sung-Hoon Moon3 , Sang Wook Park4 , Woo Hyun Paik5 , Chang Nyol Paik6 , Byoung Kwan Son7 , Tae Jun Song8 , Eaum Seok Lee9 , Yun Nah Lee10 , Yoon Suk Lee11 , Jae Min Lee12 , Tae Joo Jeon13 , Chang Hwan Park14 , Kwang Bum Cho15 , Dong Wook Lee16 , Hong Ja Kim17 , Seung Bae Yoon18 , Kwang Hyun Chung7 , Jin-Seok Park19

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Although endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) are widely used for tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid mass, the optimal strategy of this procedure has not been established yet. The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the current practice patterns of EUS-FNA/FNB for pancreatic solid mass in Korea.Methods: The Policy-Quality Management of the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) developed a questionnaire containing 22 questions. An electronic survey consisting of the questionnaire was distributed by e-mail to members registered to the KPBA.Results: A total of 101 respondents completed the survey. Eighty respondents (79.2%) performed preoperative EUS-FNA/FNB for operable pancreatic solid mass. Acquire needles (60.4%) were used the most, followed by ProCore needles (47.5%). In terms of need size, most respondents (>80%) preferred 22-gauge needles regardless of the location of the mass. Negative suction with a 10-mL syringe (71.3%) as sampling technique was followed by stylet slow-pull (41.6%). More than three needle passes for EUS-FNA/FNB was performed by most respondents (>80%). The frequency of requiring repeated procedure was significantly higher in respondents with a low individual volume (

Gut and Liver

Vol.17 No.2
March, 2023

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212


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Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

Editorial Office