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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
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  • 8. Peer Review

    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.





Article Type

  • Gastric Outlet Obstruction: Current Status and Future Directions

    Ioannis S. Papanikolaou1 , Peter D. Siersema2

    Abstract : Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a relatively common condition in which mechanical obstruction of the pylorus, distal stomach, or duodenum causes severe symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and early satiety. Its etiology includes both benign and malignant disorders. Currently, GOO has many treatment options, including initial conservative therapeutic protocols and more invasive procedures, such as surgical gastroenterostomy, stent placement and, the most recently implemented procedure, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE). Each procedure has its merits, with surgery often prevailing in patients with longer life expectancy and stents being used most often in patients with malignant gastric outlet stenosis. The newly developed EUS-GE combines the immediate effect of stents and the long-term efficacy of gastroenterostomy. However, this novel method is a technically demanding process that requires expert experience and special facilities. Thus, the true clinical effectiveness, as well as the duration of the effects of EUS-GE, still need to be determined.

  • What Are the Different Phenotypes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Asia?

    Su Bee Park , Jin Young Yoon , Jae Myung Cha

    Abstract : The burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Asia has been increasing over the past decades. Although patients with IBD show heterogenous phenotypes depending on the individual characteristics, no significant differences have been established in the IBD phenotypes of Western and Asian populations. However, despite the much lower incidence of IBD in Asia than in Western countries, the incidence has been rapidly increasing in Asia while remaining stable in Western countries. The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) showed an earlier and a more marked increase than the incidence of Crohn disease (CD), but the UC-to-CD ratio has recently decreased because of a relative increase in the incidence of CD in Asia. While CD shows a significant male predominance, UC only shows a slight male predominance. A recent study reported that the incidence of IBD in Asia showed a bimodal age distribution with increasing IBD prevalence, similar to the findings of Western studies. CD in Asian patients, especially those in East Asia, is characterized by ileocolonic involvement and perianal fistula. The frequency of extraintestinal manifestations, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, appears to be lower in Asia, but this finding should be interpreted with caution due to the transient and nonspecific nature of these manifestations. Although familial aggregation is lower in East Asia, it may also be explained by the low prevalence of IBD in Asia. Thus, more studies should focus on the differences in phenotypes in Asian IBD patients versus Western patients.

  • The Role of Gut Microbiota and Genetic Susceptibility in the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis

    Fumin Xu1 , Chunmei Yang1 , Mingcheng Tang1 , Ming Wang1 , Zhenhao Cheng1 , Dongfeng Chen1 , Xiao Chen2 , Kaijun Liu1

    Abstract : Pancreatitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the pancreas caused by autodigestion induced by excessive premature protease activation. However, recognition of novel pathophysiological mechanisms remains a still challenge. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, and the gut microbiota is a potential source of an environmental effect. In recent years, several new frontiers in gut microbiota and genetic risk assessment research have emerged and improved the understanding of the disease. These investigations showed that the disease progression of pancreatitis could be regulated by the gut microbiome, either through a translocation influence or in a host immune response manner. Meanwhile, the onset of the disease is also associated with the heritage of a pathogenic mutation, and the disease progression could be modified by genetic risk factors. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, and the genetic susceptibility in pancreatitis.

  • Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy versus Metronidazole-Intensified Triple Therapy as a First-Line Treatment for Clarithromycin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Seung In Seo1,2 , Hyun Lim2,3 , Chang Seok Bang2,4 , Young Joo Yang2,4 , Gwang Ho Baik2,4 , Sang Pyo Lee2,5 , Hyun Joo Jang2,5 , Sea Hyub Kae2,5 , Jinseob Kim6 , Hak Yang Kim1,2 , Woon Geon Shin1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Clarithromycin resistance is a main factor for treatment failure in the context of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the treatment regimen for clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection has not yet been determined. We aimed to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy versus 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy for clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection with genotypic resistance. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 782 patients with H. pylori infection examined using sequencing-based clarithromycin resistance point mutation tests were recruited between December 2018 and October 2020 in four institutions in Korea. Patients with significant point mutations (A2142G, A2142C, A2143G, A2143C, and A2144G) were randomly assigned to receive either 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy (n=102) or 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy (n=99). Results: The overall genotypic clarithromycin resistance rate was 25.7% according to the sequencing method. The eradication rate of 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy was not significantly different in the intention-to-treat analysis (80.4% vs 69.7%, p=0.079), but was significantly higher than that of 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy in the per-protocol analysis (95.1% vs 76.4%, p=0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of side effects. In addition, the 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy was more cost-effective than the 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy. Conclusions: Fourteen-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy showed comparable efficacy with 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy, and it was more cost-effective in the context of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Gastric cancers (GCs), particularly the Lauren intestinal type, show a male predominance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reproductive factors on GCs in females, according to Lauren classification.Methods: Medical records of 1,849 males and 424 females who underwent radical gastrectomy or endoscopic resection for GCs between 2010 and 2018 were reviewed. The incidences of intestinal-type GCs were compared between males and groups of females stratified according to postmenopausal period. Associations between reproductive factors in females and intestinaltype GCs were analyzed using multivariate models.Results: The proportions of intestinal-type GCs were significantly lower in premenopausal (19%), less than 10 years postmenopausal (30.4%), and 10 to 19 years postmenopausal females (44.1%) than in males (61.0%) (p

  • Correlation between Surrogate Quality Indicators for Adenoma Detection Rate and Adenoma Miss Rate in Qualified Colonoscopy, CORE Study: KASID Multicenter Study

    Jae Hee Han1 , Hyun Gun Kim1 , Eu Mi Ahn2 , Suyeon Park3 , Seong Ran Jeon1 , Jae Myung Cha4 , Min Seob Kwak4 , Yunho Jung5 , Jeong Eun Shin6 , Hyun Deok Shin6 , Young-Seok Cho7

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The adenoma detection rate (ADR) does not reflect the complete detection of every adenoma during colonoscopy; thus, many surrogate indicators have been suggested. This study investigated whether the ADR and surrogate quality indicators reflect the adenoma miss rate (AMR) when performing qualified colonoscopy. Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of asymptomatic examinees aged 50 to 75 years who underwent back-to-back screening colonoscopies by eight endoscopists. The ADR and surrogate quality indicators, including polyp detection rate, total number of adenomas per colonoscopy, additional adenomas found after the first adenoma per colonoscopy (ADR-Plus), and total number of adenomas per positive participant, were calculated for the prediction of AMR. Results: A total of 371 back-to-back colonoscopies were performed. There was a significant difference in ADRs (range, 44% to 75.4%; p=0.024), polyp detection rates (range, 56% to 86.9%; p=0.008) and adenomas per positive participants (range, 1.19 to 2.30; p=0.038), and a tendency of a difference in adenomas per colonoscopy (range, 0.62 to 1.31; p=0.051) and ADR-Plus (range, 0.13 to 0.70; p=0.054) among the endoscopists. The overall AMR was 20.1%, and AMRs were not different (range, 13.9 to 28.6; p>0.05) among the endoscopists. No quality indicators were significantly correlated with AMR. The number of adenomas found during the first colonoscopy was an independent factor for increased AMR (odds ratio, 1.79; p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Opportunistic infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a serious problem. However, its status of doctors’ opinions and test equipment in hospitals are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate these issues to improve the prognosis of IBD patients.Methods: This retrospective, multicenter study was conducted by 83 investigators who were members of the Asian Organization for Crohn’s and Colitis. Data on opportunistic infection were collected from hospital databases between January 2017 and December 2017. The survey consisted of 11 items.Results: Most physicians appreciated the diagnostic value of tissue cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, accounting for 86.1% of members in China, 37.5% in Japan, 52.9% in South Korea, and 66.7% in Southeast Asia. Only 83.1% of hospitals had the ability to test for CMV immunohistochemistry in Asia. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was recommended by all members. However, only 66.7% in China, 70.6% in South Korea, and 66.7% in Southeast Asia agreed to routinely vaccinate IBD patients when HBsAg tested negative. Most members preferred metronidazole (74.7%) as the first choice for patients with Clostridium difficile infection. However, the proportion of stool C. difficile toxin test was lower in China than in other areas (75.0% in China vs 95.8% in Japan and 100% in South Korea and Southeast Asia, p

  • Improvement in Medication Adherence after Pharmacist Intervention Is Associated with Favorable Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Jae Song Kim1,2 , Min Jung Geum1 , Eun Sun Son1,2 , Yun Mi Yu3 , Jae Hee Cheon4 , Kyeng Hee Kwon2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Although pharmacist intervention for patients with chronic diseases has been shown to improve medication adherence, few studies have evaluated its effects on the objective clinical outcomes. We investigated the impact of pharmacist intervention on medication adherence and clinical outcomes in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Patients with UC and low medication adherence were divided into two groups, based on pharmacist intervention. Their medication possession ratio and nonadherence rate for 6 months before and after the baseline were investigated. The partial Mayo score, flare-up incidence, and factors influencing flare-up events for 1 year after the baseline were analyzed. Results: Of 99 patients, 33 and 66 were included in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The nonadherence rate significantly declined in the intervention group 6 months after the baseline (60.6% before vs 30.3% after; p=0.013). The groups showed a significant difference regarding time-related partial Mayo scores (p=0.002). Intervention was significantly negatively correlated with time and the partial Mayo score (r2=0.035, p=0.013). A significant difference was observed in the flare-up incidence (33.3% in the intervention group vs 54.6% in the control group; p=0.046). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that pharmacist intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 0.370; 95% confidence interval, 0.145 to 0.945; p=0.038) independently reduced the flareup risk. Conclusions: Pharmacist intervention significantly decreased the nonadherence rate, improved the partial Mayo score, and reduced the flare-up incidence compared with the control group in a cohort of UC patients identified to have low medication adherence.

  • Clinical Course of Patients with Intestinal Behçet’s Disease According to Consensus-Based Diagnostic Categories

    Yu Young Joo1 , Bo-In Lee1,2 , Seung-Jun Kim1 , Han Hee Lee3 , Jin Su Kim4 , Jae Myung Park1,2 , Young-Seok Cho1,2 , Kang Moon Lee5 , Sang Woo Kim6 , Hwang Choi7 , Myung-Gyu Choi1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: There have been few studies regarding the prognosis of intestinal Behçet’s disease (iBD) patients according to consensus-based diagnostic categories, which reflects the typicality of intestinal ulcers, the presence of oral ulcers, and the accompanying systemic manifestations. Methods: The medical records of patients who had ileocolonic ulcers with a clinical impression of iBD were reviewed. The patients were categorized according to the diagnostic algorithm at the time of diagnosis. Adverse events were defined as major surgery or admission related to iBD deterioration. Results: A total of 163 patients were included in the study. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.2, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis was 48.9±15.9 years. The numbers of patients who met the definite, probable, suspected, and nondiagnostic iBD criteria were 19 (11.7%), 61 (37.4%), 38 (23.3%), and 45 (27.6%), respectively. The event-free survival of patients with definite, probable, and suspected iBD was significantly shorter than that of patients with nondiagnostic iBD (p=0.026), while there was no significant difference among the definite iBD, probable iBD, and suspected iBD groups (p=0.596). After excluding patients with nondiagnostic iBD, multivariate analysis showed that anemia, fever, colonic involvement other than the ileocecum, and accompanying hematologic disorders at the time of diagnosis were significantly associated with the development of adverse events. Conclusions: The clinical course of patients with definite, probable, and suspected iBD is distinguished from that of patients with nondiagnostic iBD, but patients with definite, probable, and suspected iBD share similar clinical courses.

  • Colonic Chicken Skin Mucosa Surrounding Colon Polyps Is an Endoscopic Predictive Marker for Colonic Neoplastic Polyps

    Yu Mi Lee1,2 , Kyung Ho Song3 , Hoon Sup Koo2 , Choong-Sik Lee4 , Inseok Ko5 , Sang Hyuk Lee2 , Kyu Chan Huh2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Narrow band imaging provides an accurate diagnosis of colonic polyps. However, these diagnostic modalities are not used as standard endoscopic tools in most institutions. This study aims to investigate whether the chicken skin mucosa (CSM) surrounding the colon polyp yields additional information about colorectal polyps, including histological differentiation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps, under conventional white light colonoscopy.Methods: This study prospectively observed 173 patients who underwent endoscopic polypectomy and reviewed the clinical data and pathologic reports of 313 polyps from a university hospital. Two endoscopists each performed colonoscopy and polypectomy and assessed the CSM. The association between CSM surrounding colorectal polyps and histology was analyzed.Results: The majority (91.3%) of CSM-positive polyps were neoplastic (sensitivity, 37.90%; specificity, 86.15%; p

  • Effectiveness and Safety of Golimumab in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Multicenter, Prospective, Postmarketing Surveillance Study

    Jongwook Yu1 , Soo Jung Park1 , Hyung Wook Kim2 , Yun Jeong Lim3 , Jihye Park1,4 , Jae Myung Cha5 , Byong Duk Ye6 , Tae Oh Kim7 , Hyun-Soo Kim8 , Hyun Seok Lee9,10 , Su Young Jung11 , Youngdoe Kim11 , Chang Hwan Choi12

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Golimumab has been used for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) since 2013. However, there is limited data on the effectiveness and safety of the real-world use of golimumab in Asian patients. Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study. We enrolled patients with moderate-to-severe UC who were administered subcutaneous golimumab at 46 medical centers between May 2014 and November 2019. The primary outcome was the effectiveness and safety of golimumab at week 22. Clinical outcomes and adverse events were assessed according to partial Mayo score at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14, and 22. Results: A total of 130 patients were included (mean age: 45.7±16.0 years). The clinical response/ remission rates at weeks 2, 6, 14, and 22 were 40.4%/22.9%, 56.0%/35.8%, 70.6%/49.5%, and 67.9%/48.6%, respectively. Based on full Mayo score at week 14, clinical response and remission rates were 84.2% and 39.5%, respectively. Mucosal healing rate was 65.8%. In multivariate analysis with logistic regression, longer disease duration was significantly associated with a higher clinical response rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.136; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.282; p=0.040 at week 6; aOR, 1.256; 95% CI, 1.049 to 1.503; p=0.013 at week 22). A higher baseline Mayo endoscopic subscore was significantly associated with a lower clinical response rate at week 6 (aOR, 0.248; 95% CI, 0.089 to 0.692; p=0.008). The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 4.6% (6/130, nine events). No serious unexpected adverse drug reactions or deaths were reported. Conclusions: Golimumab was effective and safe as an induction and maintenance treatment for Korean patients with moderate-to-severe UC.

  • Exploration of Potential Gut Microbiota-Derived Biomarkers to Predict the Success of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Cohort in Korea

    Gi-Ung Kang1 , Sowon Park2 , Yeongyun Jung1 , Jai J. Jee2 , Min-Sueng Kim1 , Seungjun Lee3 , Dong-Woo Lee4 , Jae-Ho Shin1 , Hong Koh2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Although fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proven as one of the promising treatments for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), potential prognostic markers regarding the clinical outcomes of FMT remain elusive. Methods: We collected fecal samples of 10 participants undergoing FMT to treat UC and those from the corresponding donors. We categorized them into two groups: responders and nonresponders. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was conducted on the samples to explore bacterial composition. Results: Analyzing the gut microbiota of patients who showed different outcomes in FMT presented a distinct microbial niche. Source tracking analysis showed the nonresponder group had a higher rate of preservation of donor microbiota, underscoring that engraftment degrees are not one of the major drivers for the success of FMT. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes bacteria were significantly depleted (p

  • Fibrotic Burden Determines Cardiovascular Risk among Subjects with Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease

    Eugene Han1 , Yong-ho Lee2,3 , Jae Seung Lee2,4 , Hye Won Lee2,4 , Beom Kyung Kim2,4 , Jun Yong Park2,4 , Do Young Kim2,4 , Sang Hoon Ahn2,4 , Byung-Wan Lee2,3 , Eun Seok Kang2,3 , Bong-Soo Cha2,3 , Seung Up Kim2,4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has recently been introduced to compensate for the conventional concept of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We explored whether fibrotic burden determines the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) among subjects with MAFLD. Methods: We recruited 9,444 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008 to 2011). Liver fibrosis was identified using the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index and NAFLD fibrosis score. The 10-year ASCVD risk score (>10%) was used to determine a high probability ASCVD risk. For sensitivity analysis, propensity score matching was assessed to subjects with aged 40 to 75 years free from ASCVD. Results: The prevalence of MAFLD was 38.0% (n=3,592). The ASCVD risk scores stratified in quartile were positively correlated to MAFLD and FIB-4 defined-significant liver fibrosis (p for trend

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) is associated with poor survival. A recent phase II study of triplet combination chemotherapy, including gemcitabine, cisplatin, and nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel, has shown promising results. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of triplet and standard doublet chemotherapy in a real-world setting.Methods: Patients with advanced BTC treated with triplet and doublet chemotherapy regimens were recruited. The propensity-score nearest neighbor matching method with a ratio of one-to-one was used to create a matched cohort for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety profiles were examined in both groups.Results: A total of 68 patients (n=34 per group) were included in the matched cohort, and their baseline characteristics were well balanced. Survival outcomes in the triplet chemotherapy group were not better than those in the doublet chemotherapy group, with a median PFS of 7.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 10.9) versus 7.2 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 8.9) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.62; p=0.793) and a median OS of 13.7 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 18.7) versus 12.2 months (95% CI, 8.4 to 16.0) (HR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.38 to 1.41; p=0.354), respectively. In addition, the treatment-related severe adverse events, such as neutropenia, were more common in the triplet chemotherapy group.Conclusions: Gemcitabine, cisplatin, and nab-paclitaxel did not improve the PFS or OS compared to that achieved by standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced BTC. The benefits of triplet chemotherapy in advanced BTC require examination in large randomized controlled trials.

  • Corrigendum: Prognosis and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasonography but Indeterminate on Computed Tomography

    Sung Woo Ko1, Tae Hyeon Kim2, Tae Jun Song1, Seong-Hun Kim3, Dong-Wan Seo1, Jai Hoon Yoon4, Chang Min Cho5, Jae Hee Cho6, Jun-Ho Choi7, Dong Wook Lee8, Sang Hyub Lee9, Seung Bae Yoon10, Tae Hoon Lee11, Gwang Ha Kim12, Hoon Jai Chun13

Gut and Liver

Vol.16 No.5
September, 2022

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212


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Aims and Scope

Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

Editorial Office