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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.





Article Type

  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Acute Liver Failure

    Yong-Hong Wang , En-Qiang Chen

    Abstract : Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe liver disease syndrome with rapid deterioration and high mortality. Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment, but the lack of donor livers and the high cost of transplantation limit its broad application. In recent years, there has been no breakthrough in the treatment of ALF, and the application of stem cells in the treatment of ALF is a crucial research field. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in disease treatment research due to their abundant sources, low immunogenicity, and no ethical restrictions. Although MSCs are effective for treating ALF, the application of MSCs to ALF needs to be further studied and optimized. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of MSCs therapy for ALF, summarize some methods to enhance the efficacy of MSCs, and explore optimal approaches for MSC transplantation.

  • Optimizing Helicobacter pylori Treatment: An Updated Review of Empirical and Susceptibility Test-Based Treatments

    Fumiaki Ishibashi , Sho Suzuki , Mizuki Nagai , Kentaro Mochida , Tetsuo Morishita

    Abstract : As the rate of discovery of drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori cases increases worldwide, the relevant societies have updated their guidelines for primary eradication regimens. A promising strategy against drug-resistant H. pylori is tailored therapy based on the results of an antibiotic susceptibility test; however, it is difficult to apply this strategy to all cases. Although culture-based antibiotic susceptibility tests can assess resistance to any antimicrobial agent, their greatest disadvantage is the time required to draw a conclusion. In contrast, molecular-based methods, such as polymerase chain reaction, can rapidly determine the presence of resistance, although a single test can only test for one type of antimicrobial agent. Additionally, the limited availability of facilities for molecular-based methods has hindered their widespread use. Therefore, low-cost, minimally invasive, simple, and effective primary regimens are needed. Several studies have compared the efficacy of the latest primary eradication regimens against that of tailored therapies, and their results have shaped guidelines. This article reviews the latest research on empirical and tailored treatments for H. pylori infections. Evidence for the superiority of tailored therapy over empirical therapy is still limited and varies by region and treatment regimen. A network meta-analysis comparing different empirical treatment regimens showed that vonoprazan triple therapy provides a superior eradication effect. Recently, favorable results towards vonoprazan dual therapy have been reported, as it reached eradication levels similar to those of vonoprazan triple therapy. Both vonoprazan dual therapy and tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility tests could contribute to future treatment strategies.

  • Abstract : Resection is the only curative treatment for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although the outcome of technically resectable PDAC has improved with advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, the 5-year survival rate remains low at 20% to 40%. More effective therapy is needed. Almost 15 years ago, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines proposed a resectability classification of PDAC based on preoperative imaging. Since then, treatment strategies for PDAC have been devised based on resectability. The standard of care for resectable PDAC is adjuvant chemotherapy after R0 resection, as shown by the results of pivotal clinical trials. With regard to neoadjuvant treatment, several recent clinical trials comparing neoadjuvant treatment with upfront resection have been conducted on resectable PDAC and borderline resectable PDAC, and the benefits and efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer has become clearer. The significance of neoadjuvant treatment for resectable PDAC remains controversial, but in borderline resectable PDAC the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment has been further recognised, although the standard of care has not yet been established. Several promising clinical trials for PDAC are ongoing. This review presents previous and ongoing trials of perioperative treatment for resectable and borderline resectable PDAC, focusing on the difference between Asian and Western countries.

  • Efficacy and Tolerability of 14-Day Tegoprazan- versus Rabeprazole-Based Triple Therapy for Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Real-World Evidence Study

    Yoon Suk Jung1 , Sunyong Kim2 , Hyun-Young Kim2 , Seung Jae Noh3 , Jung Ho Park1 , Chong Il Sohn1 , Chan Hyuk Park3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Tegoprazan, a new, fast, and strong potassium-competitive acid blocker, has been approved for the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases in Korea. However, real-world clinical data regarding this drug are scarce. We aimed to compare the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates of tegoprazan- and rabeprazole-based triple therapy.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from patients who received first-line treatment for H. pylori infection using tegoprazan- or rabeprazole-based triple therapy for 2 weeks (50 mg tegoprazan or 20 mg rabeprazole+1,000 mg amoxicillin+500 mg clarithromycin twice daily). The primary endpoint was the eradication rate as determined by intention-to-treat analysis.Results: Of the 677 patients included in our study, 344 and 333 received tegoprazan-based and rabeprazole-based triple therapy, respectively. The eradication rate from intention-to-treat analysis was 76.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.1% to 81.0%) for tegoprazan-based triple therapy and 75.4% (95% CI, 70.5% to 79.8%) for rabeprazole-based triple therapy. There was no significant difference in the eradication rates between the two groups (p>0.999). Per-protocol analysis also revealed no significant difference between the eradication rates of the two groups (tegoprazan 83.4% [95% CI, 79.0% to 87.2%] vs rabeprazole 83.5% [79.0% to 87.4%], p>0.999). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in adverse event rates between the two groups (tegoprazan, 27.6%; rabeprazole, 25.8%; p=0.604).Conclusions: The eradication rate of tegoprazan-based triple therapy was similar to that of rabeprazole-based triple therapy. Further studies on the dose-escalation effect of tegoprazan for H. pylori eradication and the efficacy of tegoprazan in regimens other than conventional triple therapy are needed.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: Dual priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (DPO-PCR) has recently been used for both the detection of Helicobacter pylori and the identification of H. pylori 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations that cause clarithromycin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the duration of effective standard triple therapy in a clarithromycin susceptible group and of bismuth-based quadruple therapy in a resistant group based on DPO-PCR.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the electronic medical records of 184 patients who, between September 2019 and December 2020, received eradication therapy following detection of H. pylori, and the subsequent identification of the clarithromycin susceptibility of their H. pylori using DPO-PCR. Patients were treated with 7- or 14-day standard triple therapy in the clarithromycin susceptible group, whereas 7- or 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy in the clarithromycin resistance group.Results: In the clarithromycin susceptible group, per-protocol analyses showed eradication rates of 87.5% (42/48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 77.1% to 95.8%) for 7-day therapy and 87.2% (41/47; 95% CI, 78.7% to 95.7%) for 14-day therapy (p=0.969). The eradication rates in the clarithromycin resistance group were 91.4% (32/35; 95% CI, 80.0% to 100.0%) for 7-day therapy and 90.3% (28/31; 95% CI, 77.4% to 100.0%) for 14-day therapy (p=0.876). There was no significant difference in the eradication rates, patient compliance, or rate of adverse events between the 7- and 14-day therapies for both groups.Conclusions: Compared to the 14-day therapy, 7-day eradication therapy is sufficient after DPO-PCR-based clarithromycin susceptibility testing.

  • The Clinicopathological Features of Mixed Carcinoma in 7,215 Patients with Gastric Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in South Korea

    Hyeong Ho Jo1,2 , Nayoung Kim1,3 , Hyeon Jeong Oh4 , Du Hyun Song1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Jaehyung Park1 , Jongchan Lee1 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,3 , Hye Seung Lee5 , Young Suk Park6 , Sang-Hoon Ahn6 , Yun-Suhk Suh6 , Do Joong Park6,7 , Hyung Ho Kim6,7 , Ji-Won Kim1 , Jin Won Kim1 , Keun-Wook Lee1,3 , Won Chang8 , Ji Hoon Park8 , Yoon Jin Lee8 , Kyoung Ho Lee8,9 , Young Hoon Kim8,9 , Soyeon Ahn10

    Abstract : Background/Aims: There are few reports regarding mixed carcinoma, defined as a mixture of glandular and poorly cohesive components, in patients with gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of mixed carcinoma in GC patients.Methods: A total of 7,215 patients diagnosed with GC at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were enrolled from March 2011 to February 2020. GC was divided into four groups (well-moderately differentiated GC, poorly differentiated GC, poorly cohesive carcinoma, and mixed carcinoma). The proportion of each GC type and the clinicopathological features were analyzed and divided into early GC and advanced GC.Results: The proportion of mixed carcinoma was 10.9% (n=787). In early GC, submucosal invasion was the most common in poorly differentiated (53.7%), and mixed carcinoma ranked second (41.1%). Mixed carcinoma showed the highest proportion of lymph node metastasis in early GC (23.0%) and advanced GC (78.3%). In advanced GC, the rate of distant metastasis was 3.6% and 3.9% in well-moderately differentiated GC and mixed carcinoma, respectively, lower than that in poorly differentiated GC (6.4%) and poorly cohesive carcinoma (5.7%), without statistical significance.Conclusions: Mixed carcinoma was associated with lymph node metastasis compared to other histological GC subtypes. And it showed relatively common submucosal invasion in early GC, but the rates of venous invasion and distant metastasis were lower in advanced GC. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanism underlying these characteristics of mixed carcinoma (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

  • Helicobacter pylori Eradication Can Reverse Rho GTPase Expression in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Jue Lie Kim1 , Sang Gyun Kim2 , Enerelt Natsagdorj2 , Hyunsoo Chung2 , Soo-Jeong Cho2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Altered DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic modification in gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in epigenetic and genetic expression of multiple Rho GTPases in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis by comparing H. pylori-positive GCs and negative controls.Methods: The messenger RNA expression and methylation of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, DOCK180, ELMO1, and CDC42) were evaluated in H. pylori-negative (control) human gastric tissues and H. pylori-positive GCs by using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the quantitative MethyLight assay, respectively. Changes in expression and methylation levels of the genes were also compared between H. pylori-eradicated and -persistent GCs at 1-year follow-up.Results: In GCs, the methylation and expression levels of DOCK180 and ELMO1 were higher than in controls, while RhoA and Rac1 had lower levels than controls. CDC42 had the same expression pattern as DOCK180 and ELMO1 without DNA methylation. Although methylation levels of DOCK180 and ELMO1 had no difference between H. pylori-eradicated and -persistent GCs at the index endoscopic resection, those of H. pylori-persistent GCs increased and H. pylori-eradicated GCs decreased for 1 year. The expression levels of DOCK180, ELMO1, and CDC42 in H. pylori-persistent GCs were higher than those in H. pylori-eradicated GCs over 1 year, unlike those of RhoA and Rac1. The methylation levels at index and the degrees of change over time of RhoA and Rac1 had no difference between H. pylori-persistent and -eradicated GCs.Conclusions: Epigenetic alterations of DOCK180 and ELMO1 are involved in H. pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis. This epigenetic field could be improved by H. pylori eradication.

  • Prognostic Significance of ARID1A Expression Patterns Varies with Molecular Subtype in Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Jun Yong Kim1 , Cheol Keun Park1 , Songmi Noh2 , Jae-Ho Cheong3 , Sung Hoon Noh3 , Hyunki Kim1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is frequently mutated in gastric cancer (GC), especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated and microsatellite instability high GC. The loss of ARID1A expression has been reported as a poor prognostic marker in GC. However, the relationships between ARID1A alteration and EBV-associated and microsatellite instability high GC, which are known to have a favorable prognosis, has hampered proper evaluation of the prognostic significance of ARID1A expression in GC. We aimed to analyze the true prognostic significance of ARID1A expression by correcting confounding variables.Methods: We evaluated the ARID1A expression in a large series (n=1,032) of advanced GC and analyzed the relationships between expression pattern and variable parameters, including clinicopathologic factors, key molecular features such as EBV-positivity, mismatch repair protein deficiency, and expression of p53 and several receptor tyrosine kinases including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor. Survival analysis of the molecular subtypes was done according to the ARID1A expression patterns.Results: Loss of ARID1A expression was found in 52.5% (53/101) of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1)-deficient and 35.8% (24/67) of EBV-positive GCs, compared with only 9.6% (82/864) of the MLH1-proficient and EBV-negative group (p

  • Novel Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitor Confers Anti-inflammatory Effects and Enhances Gut Barrier Function

    Jae-Young Lee1 , Hyun Woo Ma2 , Ji Hyung Kim2 , I Seul Park2 , Mijeong Son2 , Keun Ho Ryu3 , Jieun Shin3 , Seung Won Kim2,4 , Jae Hee Cheon2,4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The purpose of the current study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of CKD-506, a novel histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4+ T cells and to explore the relationship between CKD-506 and gut epithelial barrier function.Methods: Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human PBMCs from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients were treated with CKD-506, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proliferation of CD4+ T cells from IBD patients was evaluated using flow cytometric analysis. The effects of CKD-506 on gut barrier function in a cell line and colon organoids, based on examinations of mRNA production, goblet cell differentiation, and E-cadherin recovery, were investigated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability assay.Results: Secretion of TNF-α, a pivotal pro-inflammatory mediator in IBD, by lipopolysaccharide-triggered PBMCs was markedly decreased by CKD-506 treatment in a dose-dependent manner and to a greater extent than by tofacitinib or tubastatin A treatment. E-cadherin mRNA expression and goblet cell differentiation increased significantly and dose-dependently in HT-29 cells in response to CKD-506, and inhibition of E-cadherin loss after TNF-α stimulation was significantly reduced both in HT-29 cells and gut organoids. Caco-2 cells treated with CKD-506 showed a significant reduction in barrier permeability in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that CKD-506 has anti-inflammatory effects on PBMCs and CD4 T cells and improves gut barrier function, suggesting its potential as a small-molecule therapeutic option for IBD.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Infliximab in Intestinal Behçet’s Disease: A Multicenter, Phase 3 Study (BEGIN)

    Jae Hee Cheon1 , Hyun-Soo Kim2 , Dong Soo Han3 , Sung Kook Kim4 , Sung Jae Shin5 , Joo Sung Kim6 , Byong Duk Ye7 , Geun Am Song8 , YoungJa Lee9 , Youngdoe Kim9 , Yoosun Lee9 , Won Ho Kim1 , BEGIN Study Group

    Abstract : Background/Aims: To date, there is no prospective study that specifically investigated the efficacy of infliximab in intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD). This study evaluated the efficacy of infliximab in patients with moderate-to-severe active intestinal BD that are refractory to conventional therapies.Methods: This phase 3, interventional, open-label, single-arm study evaluated clinical outcomes of infliximab treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe intestinal BD. The coprimary endpoints were clinical response, decrease in disease activity index for intestinal BD (DAIBD) score ≥20 from weeks 0 to 8 for the induction therapy and week 32 for the maintenance therapy.Results: A total of 33 patients entered the induction therapy and were treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6. The mean DAIBD score changed from 90.8±40.1 at week 0 to 40.3±36.4 at week 8, with a significant mean change of 50.5±36.4 (95% confidence interval, 37.5 to 63.4; p

  • Pretransplant Functional Status Predicts Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality after Liver Transplantation in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Myung Ji Goh1 , Jihye Kim1 , Won Hyuk Chang2 , Dong Hyun Sinn1 , Geum-Yeon Gwak1 , Yong-Han Paik1 , Moon Seok Choi1 , Joon Hyeok Lee1 , Kwang Cheol Koh1 , Seung Woon Paik1 , Jong Man Kim3 , Wonseok Kang1,4,5

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether pretransplant frailty can predict postoperative morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with cirrhosis.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 patients who underwent LT between 2018 and 2020 at a tertiary hospital in Korea.Results: Among them, 189 patients (78.1%) received LT from a living donor. Physical frailty at baseline was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), by which patients were categorized into two groups: frail (SPPB

  • Serum Anti-Fumarate Hydratase Autoantibody as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis of Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    Linlin Wei1 , Ting Wang2 , Sisi Chen3 , Yeying Liu3 , Xueying Huang3 , Sujun Zheng4 , Bin Xu1 , Feng Ren5 , Mei Liu3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: To investigate the autoantibody against fumarate hydratase (FH), which is a specific liver failure-associated antigen (LFAA) and determine whether it can be used as a biomarker to evaluate the prognosis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF).Methods: An immunoproteomic approach was applied to screen specific LFAAs related to differential prognosis of ACLF (n=60). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology was employed for the validation of the frequency and titer of autoantibodies against FH in ACLF patients with different prognoses (n=82). Moreover, we clarified the expression of autoantibodies against FH in patients with chronic hepatitis B (n=60) and hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis (n=60). The dynamic changes in the titers of autoantibodies against FH were analyzed by sample collection at multiple time points during the clinical course of eight ACLF patients with different prognoses.Results: Ultimately, 15 LFAAs were screened and identified by the immunoproteomic approach. Based on ELISA-based verification, anti-FH/Fumarate hydratase protein autoantibody was chosen to verify its expression in ACLF patients. ACLF patients had a much higher anti-FH autoantibody frequency (76.8%) than patients with liver cirrhosis (10%, p=0.000), patients with chronic hepatitis B (6.7%, p=0.022), and normal humans (0%, p=0.000). More importantly, the frequency and titer of anti-FH protein autoantibodies in the serum of ACLF patients with a good prognosis were much higher than that of patients with a poor prognosis (83.9% vs 61.5%, p=0.019; 1.41±0.85 vs 0.94±0.56, p=0.017, respectively). The titer of anti-FH autoantibodies showed dynamic changes in the clinical course of ACLF.Conclusions: The anti-FH autoantibody in serum may be a potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of ACLF.

  • Efficacy Analysis of Suprapapillary versus Transpapillary Self-Expandable Metal Stents According to the Level of Obstruction in Malignant Extrahepatic Biliary Obstruction

    Sung Yong Han1 , Tae Hoon Lee2 , Sung Ill Jang3 , Dong Uk Kim1 , Jae Kook Yang2 , Jae Hee Cho3 , Min Je Sung4 , Chang-Il Kwon4 , Jin-Seok Park5 , Seok Jeong5 , Don Haeng Lee5 , Sang-Heum Park2 , Dong Ki Lee3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The use of a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is recommended for unresectable malignant biliary obstruction (MBO). Stent-related adverse events might differ according to the position of the stent through the ampulla of Vater (AOV). We retrospectively evaluated SEMS patency and adverse events according to the position of the SEMS.Methods: In total, 280 patients who underwent endoscopic SEMS placement due to malignant distal biliary obstruction were analyzed retrospectively. Suprapapillary and transpapillary SEMS insertions were performed on 51 patients and 229 patients, respectively.Results: Between the suprapapillary group (SPG) and transpapillary group (TPG), the stent patency period was not significantly different (median [95% confidence interval]: 107 days [82.3 to 131.7] vs 120 days [99.3 to 140.7], p=0.559). There was also no significant difference in the rate of adverse events. In subgroup analysis, the stent patency for an MBO located within 2 cm from the AOV was found to be significantly shorter than that for an MBO located more than 2 cm from the AOV in the SPG (64 days [0 to 160.4] vs 127 days [82.0 to 171.9], p

  • Combinatorial Effect of Prophylactic Interventions for Post-ERCP Pancreatitis among Patients with Risk Factors: A Network Meta-Analysis

    Jin Ho Choi , Sang Hyub Lee , Joo Seong Kim , Namyoung Park , Myoeng Hwan Lee , Min Woo Lee , In Rae Cho , Woo Hyun Paik , Ji Kon Ryu , Yong-Tae Kim

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The combinatorial effects of prophylactic methods for postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) in patients with risk factors remain unclear. In this network meta-analysis, we compared the efficacy of various prophylactic strategies to decrease the risk of PEP among patients with risk factors.Methods: A systematic review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library through July 2021. We used frequentist network meta-analysis to compare the rates of PEP among patients who received prophylactic treatments as follows: class A, rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; class B, prophylactic pancreatic stent; class C, aggressive hydration; or control, no prophylaxis or active control. We selected those studies that included patients with risk factors for PEP.Results: We identified 19 trials, comprising 4,328 participants. Class ABC (odds ratio [OR], 0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.24), class AC (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.47), class AB (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.26), class BC (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.41), class A (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.50), and class B (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.46), were associated with a reduced risk of PEP as compared to that of the control. The most effective prophylaxis was ABC (0.87), followed by AC (0.68), AB (0.65), BC (0.56), A (0.49), and B (0.24) according to P-score.Conclusions: The results of this network meta-analysis suggest that the more prophylactic methods are employed, the better the outcomes. It appears that for patients with risk factors, we need to prevent PEP through the use of these well proven combination strategies.

  • Corrigendum to: External Validation of the eCura System for Undifferentiated-Type Early Gastric Cancer with Noncurative Endoscopic Resection

    Hyo-Joon Yang1, Young-Il Kim2, Ji Yong Ahn3, Kee Don Choi3, Sang Gyun Kim4, Seong Woo Jeon5, Jie-Hyun Kim6, Sung Kwan Shin7, Hyuk Lee8, Wan Sik Lee9, Gwang Ha Kim10, Jae Myung Park11, Woon Geon Shin12, Il Ju Choi2

Gut and Liver

Vol.17 No.5
September, 2023

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212


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Aims and Scope

Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

Editorial Office