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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.





Article Type

  • Esophageal Reflux Hypersensitivity: A Comprehensive Review

    Akinari Sawada1 , Daniel Sifrim2 , Yasuhiro Fujiwara1

    Abstract : Reflux hypersensitivity (RH) is one of the phenotypes of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The latest Rome IV defines RH as a condition with typical reflux symptoms and positive reflux-symptom association despite normal acid exposure. Subsequently, the Lyon consensus proposed detailed cutoff values for the criteria on the basis of experts’ consensus. Rome IV brought a clear-cut perspective into the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the importance of esophageal hypersensitivity. This perspective can be supported by the fact that other functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia often overlap with RH. Although several possible pathophysiological mechanisms of esophageal hypersensitivity have been identified, there is still unmet medical needs in terms of treatment for this condition. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding RH.

  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease as a Systemic Disease and the Need for Multidisciplinary Care

    Masato Yoneda , Takashi Kobayashi , Michihiro Iwaki , Asako Nogami , Satoru Saito , Atsushi Nakajima

    Abstract : Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease, and there has been a rapid increase in cases worldwide. NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or exacerbation of other organ diseases, thus posing a significant health problem from both a medical and a socioeconomic perspective. NAFLD is a systemic disease and requires the involvement of numerous medical professionals. Multidisciplinary collaboration, in which different professionals within different specialties come together and work together toward a common goal, supports better patient care by integrating perspectives of multiple experts and facilitating the exchange of opinions. Due to the large number of potential patients, gastroenterologists and hepatologists cannot manage the patients alone, and collaboration between specialists in various fields, including family doctors, dentists, nutritionists, and pharmacists is required for treatment of NAFLD. This review will discuss NAFLD from the perspective of various specialties and introduce multidisciplinary collaboration.

  • Rehabilitation Program for Improved Musculoskeletal Pain in Gastrointestinal Endoscopists: Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    Su Youn Nam1 , Kwangwoo Nam2 , Ki-Nam Shim3 , Seoyon Yang4 , Chung Hyun Tae3 , Junwoo Jo5 , Nayoung Kim6,7 , Seon Mi Park8 , Young Sook Park9 , Seun Ja Park10 , Sung-Ae Jung3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to develop a rehabilitation program for musculoskeletal pain experienced by gastrointestinal endoscopists and to investigate its usefulness.Methods: This was a multicenter cohort study. During the first 2 weeks, a questionnaire regarding daily workload and musculoskeletal symptoms was administered. Then, a rehabilitation program including equipment/posture correction and stretching was conducted during the remaining 6 weeks. Follow-up daily workload and musculoskeletal symptom surveys were distributed during the last 2 weeks. The program satisfaction survey was performed at the 6th and 8th weeks.Results: Among 118 participants (69 men), 94% (n=111) complained of musculoskeletal pain at baseline. Various hospital activities at baseline were associated with multisite musculoskeletal pain, whereas only a few workloads were correlated with musculoskeletal pain after the rehabilitation program. Follow-up musculoskeletal pain was negatively correlated with equipment/posture program performance; arm/elbow pain was negatively correlated with elbow (R=–0.307) and wrist (R=–0.205) posture; leg/foot pain was negatively correlated with monitor position, shoulder, elbow, wrist, leg, and foot posture. Higher performance in the scope position (86.8% in the improvement vs 71.3% in the aggravation group, p=0.054) and table height (94.1% vs 79.1%, p=0.054) were associated with pain improvement. An increased number of colonoscopy procedures (6.27 in the aggravation vs 0.02 in the improvement group, p=0.017) was associated with pain aggravation. Most participants reported being average (32%) or satisfied (67%) with the program at the end of the study.Conclusions: Our rehabilitation program is easily applicable, satisfactory, and helpful for improving the musculoskeletal pain experienced by gastrointestinal endoscopists.

  • Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumors According to the 2019 World Health Organization Grading System: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study

    Yuri Kim1 , Bokyung Ahn2 , Kee Don Choi1 , Beom-Su Kim3 , Jeong-Hwan Yook3 , Gin Hyug Lee1 , Seung-Mo Hong2 , Jeong Hoon Lee1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Although gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon neoplasms, their prevalence is increasing. The clinical importance of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of gastric NETs, compared with NETs in other organs, has been underestimated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of gastric NETs based on the 2019 WHO classification and to assess the survival outcomes of patients from a single-center with a long-term follow-up.Methods: The medical records of 427 patients with gastric NETs who underwent endoscopic or surgical resection between January 2000 and March 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. All specimens were reclassified according to the 2019 WHO classification. The clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and oncologic outcomes of 139 gastric NETs were analyzed.Results: The patients’ median age was 53.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46.0 to 63.0 years). The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (IQR, 15.0 to 63.0 months). Of the patients, 92, 44, and 3 had grades 1, 2, and 3 NETs, respectively. The mean tumor size significantly increased as the tumor grade increased (p=0.025). Patients with grades 2 and 3 gastric NETs more frequently had lymphovascular invasion (29.8% vs 10.9%, p=0.005) and deeper tissue invasion (8.5% vs 0%, p=0.012) than those with grade 1 tumors. The overall disease-specific survival rate was 100%. Two patients with grades 2-3 gastric NETs experienced extragastric recurrence.Conclusions: Although gastric NETs have an excellent prognosis, grade 2 or grade 3 gastric NETs are associated with a larger size, deeper invasion, and extragastric recurrence, which require active treatment.

  • Artificial Intelligence in the Prediction of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors on Endoscopic Ultrasonography Images: Development, Validation and Comparison with Endosonographers

    Yi Lu1,2 , Jiachuan Wu3 , Minhui Hu1,2 , Qinghua Zhong4 , Limian Er5 , Huihui Shi5 , Weihui Cheng6 , Ke Chen7 , Yuan Liu7 , Bingfeng Qiu8 , Qiancheng Xu8 , Guangshun Lai9 , Yufeng Wang10 , Yuxuan Luo10 , Jinbao Mu10 , Wenjie Zhang11 , Min Zhi2,12 , Jiachen Sun1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The accuracy of endosonographers in diagnosing gastric subepithelial lesions (SELs) using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is influenced by experience and subjectivity. Artificial intelligence (AI) has achieved remarkable development in this field. This study aimed to develop an AI-based EUS diagnostic model for the diagnosis of SELs, and evaluated its efficacy with external validation.Methods: We developed the EUS-AI model with ResNeSt50 using EUS images from two hospitals to predict the histopathology of the gastric SELs originating from muscularis propria. The diagnostic performance of the model was also validated using EUS images obtained from four other hospitals.Results: A total of 2,057 images from 367 patients (375 SELs) were chosen to build the models, and 914 images from 106 patients (108 SELs) were chosen for external validation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the model for differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and non-GISTs in the external validation sets by images were 82.01%, 68.22%, 86.77%, 59.86%, and 78.12%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in the external validation set by tumors were 83.75%, 71.43%, 89.33%, 60.61%, and 80.56%, respectively. The EUS-AI model showed better performance (especially specificity) than some endosonographers. The model helped improve the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of certain endosonographers.Conclusions: We developed an EUS-AI model to classify gastric SELs originating from muscularis propria into GISTs and non-GISTs with good accuracy. The model may help improve the diagnostic performance of endosonographers. Further work is required to develop a multi-modal EUS-AI system.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Fexuprazan in Patients with Acute or Chronic Gastritis

    Gwang Ha Kim1 , Myung-Gyu Choi2 , Jin Il Kim3 , Soo Teik Lee4 , Hoon Jai Chun5 , Kook Lae Lee6 , Suk Chei Choi7 , Jae-Young Jang8 , Yong Chan Lee9 , Jae Gyu Kim10 , Ki Bae Kim11 , Ki-Nam Shim12 , Chong Il Sohn13 , Sung Kook Kim14 , Sang Gyun Kim15 , Jin Seok Jang16 , Nayoung Kim17 , Hwoon-Yong Jung18 , Hyojin Park19 , Kyu Chan Huh20 , Kwang Jae Lee21 , Su Jin Hong22 , Song Baek23 , Jin Joo Han23 , Oh Young Lee24

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Fexuprazan is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker that could be of benefit to patients with gastric mucosal injury. The aim of this study was to assess the 2-week efficacy and safety of fexuprazan in patients with acute or chronic gastritis.Methods: In this study, 327 patients with acute or chronic gastritis who had one or more gastric erosions on endoscopy and subjective symptoms were randomized into three groups receiving fexuprazan 20 mg once a day (q.d.), fexuprazan 10 mg twice a day (b.i.d.), or placebo for 2 weeks. The posttreatment assessments were the primary endpoint (erosion improvement rate), secondary endpoints (cure rates of erosion and edema and improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and subjective symptoms), and drug-related adverse events.Results: Among the patients, 57.8% (59/102), 65.7% (67/102), and 40.6% (39/96) showed erosion improvement 2 weeks after receiving fexuprazan 20 mg q.d., fexuprazan 10 mg b.i.d., and placebo, respectively. Both fexuprazan 20 mg q.d. and 10 mg b.i.d. showed superior efficacy to the placebo (p=0.017 and p<0.001, respectively). Likewise, both fexuprazan 20 mg q.d. and 10 mg b.i.d. also showed higher erosion healing rates than the placebo (p=0.033 and p=0.010, respectively). No difference was noted in the edema healing rate and the improvement rates for redness, hemorrhage, and subjective symptoms between the fexuprazan and placebo groups. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of adverse drug reactions.Conclusions: Fexuprazan 20 mg q.d. and 10 mg b.i.d. for 2 weeks showed therapeutic efficacy superior to that of placebo in patients with acute or chronic gastritis ( identifier NCT04341454).

  • Incidence, Morbidity, and Mortality of Achalasia: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study in South Korea

    Ga Hee Kim1 , Hyungchul Park2,3 , Kee Wook Jung2 , Min-Ju Kim4 , Ye-Jee Kim4 , Ji Min Lee5 , Bong Eun Lee6 , Yang Won Min7 , Jeong Hwan Kim8 , Hee Kyong Na2 , Ji Yong Ahn2 , Jeong Hoon Lee2 , Do Hoon Kim2 , Kee Don Choi2 , Ho June Song2 , Gin Hyug Lee2 , Hwoon-Yong Jung2 , Hyun Jin Kim9 , Big Data Study Group Under the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Although an association between achalasia and esophageal cancer has been reported, whether achalasia confers a substantial increase in mortality is unknown. Moreover, the causes of death related to achalasia have not been investigated. We performed this nationwide, population-based cohort study on achalasia because no such study has been performed since the introduction of high-resolution manometry in 2008.Methods: This study was performed using data extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, covering a 9-year period from 2009 to 2017. Control participants without a diagnostic code for achalasia were randomly selected and matched by sex and birth year at a case-to-control ratio of 1:4. Data on the cause of death from Statistics Korea were also analyzed.Results: The overall incidence of achalasia was 0.68 per 100,000 person-years, and the prevalence was 6.46 per 100,000 population. Patients with achalasia (n=3,063) had significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for esophageal cancer (aHR, 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 9.22; p=0.017), pneumonia (aHR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.89 to 2.81; p

  • Downregulation of Heat Shock Protein 72 Contributes to Fibrostenosis in Crohn’s Disease

    Seung Won Kim1,2 , Jae-Young Lee3 , Han Cheol Lee3 , Jae Bum Ahn3 , Ji Hyung Kim1 , I Seul Park1 , Jae Hee Cheon1,2 , Duk Hwan Kim4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Crohn’s disease (CD) with recurrent inflammation can cause intestinal fibrostenosis due to dysregulated deposition of extracellular matrix. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of fibrostenosis. Here, we performed a differential proteomic analysis between normal, inflamed, and fibrostenotic specimens of patients with CD and investigated the roles of the candidate proteins in myofibroblast activation and fibrosis.Methods: We performed two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and identified candidate proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and orbitrap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also verified the levels of candidate proteins in clinical specimens and examined their effects on 18Co myofibroblasts and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.Results: We identified five of 30 proteins (HSP72, HSPA5, KRT8, PEPCK-M, and FABP6) differentially expressed in fibrostenotic CD. Among these proteins, the knockdown of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) promoted the activation and wound healing of myofibroblasts. Moreover, knockdown of HSP72 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of intestinal epithelial cells by reducing E-cadherin and inducing fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin, which contribute to fibrosis.Conclusions: HSP72 is an important mediator that regulates myofibroblasts and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in fibrosis of CD, suggesting that HSP72 can serve as a target for antifibrotic therapy.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: The involvement of long noncoding RNAs in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been well documented by substantial evidence. However, whether cytoskeleton regulator RNA (CYTOR) could affect the progression of HCC remains unclear.Methods: The relative expression of CYTOR, miR-125a-5p and HS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) mRNA in HCC cells were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The viability of treated HCC cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was estimated by flow cytometry analysis, assessment of caspase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining, and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins. The interplay between CYTOR or HAX-1 and miR-125a-5p was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay.Results: CYTOR was upregulated and miR-125a-5p was downregulated in HCC cells. CYTOR silencing inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. miR-125a-5p was sponged and negatively regulated by CYTOR, and HAX-1 was directly targeted and negatively modulated by miR-125a-5p. Overexpression of miR-125a-5p enhanced the repressive effects of CYTOR knockdown on HCC cells, and knockdown of HAX-1 enhanced the inhibitory effects of miR-125a-5p mimics on HCC cells.Conclusions: CYTOR silencing facilitates HCC cell apoptosis in vitro via the miR-125a-5p/HAX-1 axis.

  • The Incidence and Care Cascade of the Hepatitis C Virus in Korea

    Young Eun Chon1 , Aejeong Jo2 , Eileen L. Yoon3 , Jonghyun Lee4 , Ho Gyun Shin2 , Min Jung Ko2 , Dae Won Jun3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The 2030 hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets of the World Health Organization are an 80% reduction in incidence and 65% reduction in mortality compared to the 2015 rates. However, information on the nationwide incidence and treatment rates of HCV infection are limited. We aimed to investigate the nationwide incidence and status of the care cascade for HCV infection in Korea.Methods: This study used data from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency linked with the data of the Korea National Health Insurance Service. Linkage to care was defined as visiting hospitals twice or more due to HCV infection within 1.5 years of the index date. The treatment rate was the number who had been prescribed antiviral medication within 1.5 years from the index date out of patients newly diagnosed with HCV.Results: The new HCV infection rate was 17.2 per 100,000 person-years (n=8,810) in 2019. The number of new HCV infections was the highest in patients aged 50 to 59 years (n=2,480), and the new HCV infection rate significantly increased with age (p

  • The Expression of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 on Immune Cells Is Related to a Better Prognosis in Biliary Tract Cancer

    Sung Chan Kwon1 , Seungmin Bang1 , Young Nyun Park2 , Ji Hoon Park1 , So Jeong Kim1 , Jung Hyun Jo1 , Moon Jae Chung1 , Jeong Youp Park1 , Seung Woo Park1 , Si Young Song1 , Eunhyang Park2 , Hee Seung Lee1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in tumor cells is associated with a poor biliary tract cancer (BTC) prognosis; tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment are associated with a better prognosis. The effect of PD-L1 expression on immune cells on survival is unclear. We investigated the relationship between PD-L1 expression in immune cells and BTC prognosis.Methods: PD-L1 expression was evaluated using an anti-PD-L1 22C3 mouse monoclonal primary antibody, and its relationships with clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model to investigate the prognostic performance of PD-L1 in BTC.Results: Among 144 analyzed cases, patients with positive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and negative PD-L1 expression in immune cells showed poorer overall survival rates than those exhibiting other expressions (tumor cells: hazard ratio [HR]=1.023, p

  • Enhancing Mural Nodules in the Main Pancreatic Duct of Main and Mixed Types of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms: Does Size Matter in Malignancy Risk?

    Hyung Ku Chon1,2 , Tae Jun Song3 , Kyoung-Hoon Yoo1 , Jun Seong Hwang4 , Myung-Hwan Kim4 , Eun Kwang Choi5 , Tae Hyeon Kim1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Most guidelines recommend surgical resection of all main duct (MD) and mixed-type (MT) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in suitable patients. However, there is little evidence regarding the malignancy risk of enhancing mural nodules (EMNs) that are present only in the main pancreatic duct (MPD) in patients with MD- and MT-IPMNs. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the clinical and morphological features associated with malignancy in MD- and MT-IPMNs with EMNs only in the MPD.Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 50 patients with MD- and MT-IPMNs with EMNs only in the MPD on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and preoperative radiologic imaging results of MPD morphology and EMN size and analyzed the risk factors associated with malignancy.Results: Histological findings of EMNs were low-grade dysplasia (38%), malignant lesions (62%), high-grade dysplasia (34%), and invasive carcinoma (28%). On the receiver operating characteristic curve, the cutoff value of EMN size on magnetic resonance imaging for best predicting malignancy was 5 mm (sensitivity, 93.5%; specificity, 52.6%; area under the curve, 0.753). Multivariate analysis showed that only EMN >5 mm (odds ratio, 27.69; confidence interval, 2.75 to 278.73; p=0.050) was an independent risk factor for malignancy.Conclusions: EMNs of >5 mm are associated with malignancy in patients with MD- and MT-IPMNs with EMNs that are present only in the MPD, in accordance with the international consensus guidelines.

  • A Case of Intramural Gastric Wall Abscess, a Rare Disease Successfully Treated with Endoscopic Incision and Drainage

    Kyung Rok Kim , Ki Nam Shim , A Reum Choe , Min Jong Lee , Ye Hyun Park , Eun Mi Song , Chung Hyun Tae , Sung Ae Jung

    Abstract : Gastric wall abscess is a rare condition characterized by a purulent inflammatory process resulting in the formation of a pocket of pus in the stomach. As the mucosa is usually intact, it requires various tools such as endoscopic ultrasonography or computed tomography for the differential diagnosis to rule out more common subepithelial tumors. Even after the diagnosis, the treatment for gastric wall abscess was previously restricted to surgical resection in combination with antibiotics. Currently, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery, the alternative method of initial treatment with an endoscopic approach is recommended. It also helps to choose appropriate antibiotics with confirmation of the pathogen by drainage. There are few reports that describe the detailed processing of the endoscopic drainage, and there is no consensus on the treatment. The pathogens that cause gastric wall abscess are usually Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Escherichia coli. There is only one case reported to be caused by Candida albicans. This is the first report of Elizabethkingia anopheles as the pathogen of the gastric wall abscess. Here, we report a case of gastric wall abscess in a 75-year-old man, safely treated by endoscopic drainage and antibiotics, confirmed by isolating the contents of the abscess.

Gut and Liver

Vol.17 No.6
November, 2023

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212


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Aims and Scope

Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

Editorial Office