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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
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    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

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  • Abstract : Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex condition resulting from environmental, microbial, immunologic, and genetic factors. With the advancement of Mendelian randomization research in IBD, we have gained new insights into the relationship between these factors and IBD. Many animal models of IBD have been developed using different methods, but few studies have attempted to model IBD by combining environmental factors and microbial factors. In this review, we examine how environmental factors and microbial factors affect the development and progression of IBD, and how they interact with each other and with the intestinal microbiota. We also summarize the current methods for creating animal models of IBD and compare their advantages and disadvantages. Based on the latest findings from Mendelian randomization studies on the role of environmental factors in IBD, we discuss which environmental and microbial factors could be used to construct a more realistic and reliable IBD experimental model. We propose that animal models of IBD should consider both environmental and microbial factors to better mimic human IBD pathogenesis and to reveal the underlying mechanisms of IBD at the immune and genetic levels. We highlight the importance of environmental and microbial factors in IBD pathogenesis and offer new perspectives and suggestions for improving experimental animal modeling. Our goal is to create a model that closely resembles the clinical picture of IBD.

  • Research Progress of Central and Peripheral Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Comorbid Dysthymic Disorders

    Yi Feng Liang1 , Xiao Qi Chen1 , Meng Ting Zhang2 , He Yong Tang2 , Guo Ming Shen2

    Abstract : Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is considered a stress disorder characterized by psychological and gastrointestinal dysfunction. IBS patients not only suffer from intestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation but also, experience dysthymic disorders such as anxiety and depression. Studies have found that corticotropin-releasing hormone plays a key role in IBS with comorbid dysthymic disorders. Next, we will summarize the effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone from the central nervous system and periphery on IBS with comorbid dysthymic disorders and relevant treatments based on published literatures in recent years.

  • Progress and Clinical Applications of Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet in Crohn’s Disease

    Duo Xu1 , Ziheng Peng1 , Yong Li1 , Qian Hou2 , Yu Peng1,3,4 , Xiaowei Liu1,4,5

    Abstract : Crohn’s disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Although the pharmacotherapies for Crohn’s disease are constantly updating, nutritional support and adjuvant therapies have recently gained more attention. Due to advancements in clinical nutrition, various clinical nutritional therapies are used to treat Crohn’s disease. Doctors treating inflammatory bowel disease can now offer several diets with more flexibility than ever. The Crohn’s disease exclusion diet is a widely used diet for patients with active Crohn’s disease. The Crohn’s disease exclusion diet requires both exclusion and inclusion. Periodic exclusion of harmful foods and inclusion of wholesome foods gradually improves a patient’s nutritional status. This article reviews the Crohn’s disease exclusion diet, including its structure, mechanisms, research findings, and clinical applications.

  • GATA4 Forms a Positive Feedback Loop with CDX2 to Transactivate MUC2 in Bile Acids-Induced Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia

    Xiaofang Yang1 , Ting Ye1 , Li Rong2 , Hong Peng2 , Jin Tong1 , Xiao Xiao1 , Xiaoqiang Wan1 , Jinjun Guo1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), a common precancerous lesion of gastric cancer, can be caused by bile acid reflux. GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) is an intestinal transcription factor involved in the progression of gastric cancer. However, the expression and regulation of GATA4 in GIM has not been clarified.Methods: The expression of GATA4 in bile acid-induced cell models and human specimens was examined. The transcriptional regulation of GATA4 was investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter gene analysis. An animal model of duodenogastric reflux was used to confirm the regulation of GATA4 and its target genes by bile acids.Results: GATA4 expression was elevated in bile acid-induced GIM and human specimens. GATA4 bound to the promoter of mucin 2 (MUC2) and stimulate its transcription. GATA4 and MUC2 expression was positively correlated in GIM tissues. Nuclear transcription factor-κB activation was required for the upregulation of GATA4 and MUC2 in bile acid-induced GIM cell models. GATA4 and caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2) reciprocally transactivated each other to drive the transcription of MUC2. In chenodeoxycholic acid-treated mice, MUC2, CDX2, GATA4, p50, and p65 expression levels were increased in the gastric mucosa.Conclusions: GATA4 is upregulated and can form a positive feedback loop with CDX2 to transactivate MUC2 in GIM. NF-κB signaling is involved in the upregulation of GATA4 by chenodeoxycholic acid.

  • Clinical Outcome of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Papillary Type Early Gastric Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    Hyun-Deok Shin1 , Ki Bae Bang1 , Sun Hyung Kang2 , Hee Seok Moon2 , Jae Kyu Sung2 , Hyun Yong Jeong2 , Dong Kyu Lee3 , Ki Bae Kim4 , Sun Moon Kim5 , Seung Woo Lee6 , Dong Soo Lee6 , Young Sin Cho7 , Il-Kwun Chung7 , Ju Seok Kim2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Papillary adenocarcinoma is classified to differentiated-type gastric cancer and is indicated for endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, due to its rare nature, there are limited studies on it. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with papillary-type early gastric cancer and to find the risk factors of lymph node metastasis.Methods: Patients diagnosed with papillary-type early gastric cancer at eight medical centers, who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or surgical treatment, were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical results and long-term outcomes of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection were evaluated, and the risk factors of lymph node metastasis in the surgery group were analyzed.Results: One-hundred and seventy-six patients with papillary-type early gastric cancer were enrolled: 44.9% (n=79) in the surgery group and 55.1% (n=97) in the endoscopic submucosal dissection group. As a result of endoscopic submucosal dissection, the en bloc resection and curative resection rates were 91.8% and 86.6%, respectively. The procedure-related complication rate was 4.1%, and local recurrence occurred in 3.1% of patients. Submucosal invasion (odds ratio, 3.735; 95% confidence interval, 1.026 to 12.177; p=0.047) and lymphovascular invasion (odds ratio, 7.636; 95% confidence interval, 1.730 to 22.857; p=0.004) were the risk factors of lymph node metastasis in papillary-type early gastric cancer patients.Conclusions: The clinical results of endoscopic submucosal dissection in papillary-type early gastric cancer were relatively favorable, and endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered safe if appropriate indications are confirmed by considering the risk of lymph node metastasis.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation for the Ablation of Barrett’s Esophagus: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Marko Kozyk1 , Lohith Kumar2 , Kateryna Strubchevska1 , Manan Trivedi3 , Margaret Wasvary4 , Suprabhat Giri2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an alternate ablative method to radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and it is preferred due to its lower cost and widespread availability. The present meta-analysis aimed to analyze the safety and efficacy of APC for the management of BE.Methods: A literature search from January 2000 to November 2022 was done for studies analyzing the outcome of APC in BE. The primary outcomes were clearance rate of intestinal metaplasia and adverse events (AE). Pooled event rates were expressed with summative statistics.Results: A total of 38 studies were included in the final analysis. The pooled event rate for clearance rate of intestinal metaplasia with APC in BE was 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.5% to 90.2%), with high-power and hybrid APC having a higher rate compared to standard APC. The pooled incidence of AE with APC in BE was 22.5% (95% CI, 15.3% to 29.7%), without any significant difference between the subgroups, with self-limited chest pain being the commonest AE. The incidence of serious AE was only 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0% to 1.0%), while stricture development was seen only in 1.7% (95% CI, 0.9% to 2.6%) of cases. The pooled recurrence rate of BE was 16.1% (95% CI, 10.7% to 21.6%), with a significantly lower recurrence with high-power APC than standard APC.Conclusions: High-power and hybrid APC seem to have an advantage over standard APC in terms of clearance rate and recurrence rate. Further studies are required to compare the efficacy and safety of hybrid APC with standard APC and radiofrequency ablation.

  • The Diagnostic Performance of Linked Color Imaging Compared to White Light Imaging in Endoscopic Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Jae Gon Lee1 , In Kyung Yoo2 , Abdullah Ozgur Yeniova3 , Sang Pyo Lee1 , The Research Group for Endoscopic Imaging of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Recognizing Helicobacter pylori infection during endoscopy is important because it can lead to the performance of confirmatory testing. Linked color imaging (LCI) is an image enhancement technique that can improve the detection of gastrointestinal lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare LCI to conventional white light imaging (WLI) in the endoscopic diagnosis of H. pylori infection.Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of LCI or WLI in the endoscopic diagnosis of H. pylori were eligible. Studies on magnifying endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and artificial intelligence were excluded.Results: Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, of which 32 reported the performance of WLI and eight reported the performance of LCI in diagnosing H. pylori infection. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of WLI in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection were 0.528 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.517 to 0.540) and 0.821 (95% CI, 0.811 to 0.830), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of LCI in the diagnosis of H. pylori were 0.816 (95% CI, 0.790 to 0.841) and 0.868 (95% CI, 0.850 to 0.884), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratios of WLI and LCI were 15.447 (95% CI, 8.225 to 29.013) and 31.838 (95% CI, 15.576 to 65.078), respectively. The areas under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves of WLI and LCI were 0.870 and 0.911, respectively.Conclusions: LCI showed higher sensitivity in the endoscopic diagnosis of H. pylori infection than standard WLI.

  • Helicobacter pylori Infection Status and Gastric Tumor Incidence According to the Year of Birth

    Jong Hwa Na , Sun-Young Lee , Jeong Hwan Kim , In-Kyung Sung , Hyung Seok Park

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-naive status is increasing. Nonetheless, biennial gastroscopy is recommended for all Koreans aged 40 to 75 years. This study aimed to determine whether gastric cancer screening guidelines could be changed according to H. pylori infection status and year of birth. Methods: Koreans who underwent serum assays and gastroscopy for gastric cancer screening between 2010 and 2016 were included if screening tests were followed up for ≥3 times. H. pylori infection was confirmed when invasive tests or 13C-urea breath tests were positive. In the case of negative test findings, eradication history, serologically detected atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia/atrophy were checked for past infection. If all were absent, H. pylori-naive status was confirmed. Results: Two-thousand and two (256 H. pylori-naive, 743 past-infected, and 1,003 infected) Koreans underwent screening tests for 95.5±28.4 months. The mean year of birth in the naive group (1969±7) differed from those of the past-infected (1957±10, p

  • Probiotic Yeast from Miso Ameliorates Stress-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity by Modulating the Gut Microbiota in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Nao Sugihara , Yoshikiyo Okada , Akira Tomioka , Suguru Ito , Rina Tanemoto , Shin Nishii , Akinori Mizoguchi , Kenichi Inaba , Yoshinori Hanawa , Kazuki Horiuchi , Akinori Wada , Yoshihiro Akita , Masaaki Higashiyama , Chie Kurihara , Shunsuke Komoto , Kengo Tomita , Ryota Hokari

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Recent studies indicate that probiotics, which have attracted attention as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, affect intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether Zygosaccharomyces sapae (strain I-6), a probiotic yeast isolated from miso (a traditional Japanese fermented food), could improve irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to water avoidance stress (WAS). The number of defecations during WAS and the visceral hypersensitivity before and after WAS were evaluated using colorectal distension. Tight junction changes were assessed by Western blotting. Some rats were fed with strain I-6 or β-glucan from strain I-6. Changes in the intestinal microbiota were analyzed. The effect of fecal microbiota transplantation after WAS was evaluated similarly. Caco-2 cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β and tight junction changes were investigated after coculture with strain I-6. Results: The increased number of stool pellets and visceral hypersensitivity induced by WAS were suppressed by administering strain I-6. The decrease in tight junction protein occludin by WAS was reversed by the administration of strain I-6. β-Glucan from strain I-6 also suppressed those changes induced by WAS. In the rat intestinal microbiota, treatment with strain I-6 altered the β-diversity and induced changes in bacterial occupancy. Upon fecal microbiota transplantation, some symptoms caused by WAS were ameliorated. Conclusions: These results suggest that traditional fermented foods such as miso in Japan are valuable sources of probiotic yeast candidates, which may be useful for preventing and treating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

  • Activin and Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Colorectal Cancer Stemness and Metastasis through FOXM1/SOX2/CXCR4 Signaling

    Hong Peng1 , Ting Ye2 , Lei Deng2 , Xiaofang Yang2 , Qingling Li3 , Jin Tong2 , Jinjun Guo1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive tumor development and metastasis. Activin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are important cytokines with the ability to induce cancer stemness. However, the effect of activin and HGF combination treatment on CSCs is still unclear.Methods: In this study, we sequentially treated colorectal cancer cells with activin and HGF and examined CSC marker expression, self-renewal, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. The roles of forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), two stemness-related transcription factors, in activin/HGF-induced aggressive phenotype were explored.Results: Activin and HGF treatment increased the expression of CSC markers and enhanced sphere formation in colorectal cancer cells. The tumorigenic and metastatic capacities of colorectal cancer cells were enhanced upon activin and HGF treatment. Activin and HGF treatment preferentially promoted stemness and metastasis of CD133+ subpopulations sorted from colorectal cancer cells. FOXM1 was upregulated by activin and HGF treatment, and the knockdown of FOXM1 blocked activin/HGF-induced stemness, tumorigenesis, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. Similarly, SOX2 was silencing impaired sphere formation of activin/HGF-treated colorectal cancers. Overexpression of SOX2 rescued the stem cell-like phenotype in FOXM1-depleted colorectal cancer cells with activin and HGF treatment. Additionally, the inhibition of FOXM1 via thiostrepton suppressed activin/HGF-induced stemness, tumorigenesis and metastasis.Conclusions: Sequential treatment with activin and HGF promotes colorectal cancer stemness and metastasis through activation of the FOXM1/SOX2 signaling. FOXM1 could be a potential target for the treatment of colorectal cancer metastasis.

  • Risk Factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Jiyoung Yoon1 , Seung Wook Hong2 , Kyung-Do Han3 , Seung-Woo Lee4 , Cheol Min Shin5,6 , Young Soo Park5 , Nayoung Kim5,6 , Dong Ho Lee5,6 , Joo Sung Kim6 , Hyuk Yoon5,6

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a rare but potentially fatal infection. This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for PJP in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Methods: This nationwide, population-based study was conducted in Korea using claims data. Cases of PJP were identified in patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) between 2010 and 2017, and the clinical data of each patient was analyzed. Dual and triple therapy was defined as the simultaneous prescription of two or three of the following drugs: steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, immunomodulators, and biologics. Results: During the mean follow-up period (4.6±2.3 years), 84 cases of PJP were identified in 39,462 IBD patients (31 CD and 53 UC). For CD patients, only age at diagnosis >40 years (hazard ratio [HR], 6.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58 to 23.80) was significantly associated with the risk of PJP, whereas in UC patients, diagnoses of diabetes (HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.19 to 5.31) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.52) showed significant associations with PJP risk. Triple therapy increased PJP risk in both UC (HR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.54 to 9.88) and CD patients (HR, 5.69; 95% CI, 2.32 to 14.48). However, dual therapy increased PJP risk only in UC patients (HR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.70). Additionally, 23 patients (27%) received intensive care treatment, and 10 (12%) died within 30 days. Conclusions: PJP risk factors differ in CD and UC patients. Considering the potential fatality of PJP, prophylaxis should be considered for at-risk IBD patients.

  • Fecal Calprotectin at Postinduction Is Capable of Predicting Persistent Remission and Endoscopic Healing after 1 Year of Treatment with Infliximab in Pediatric Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    Yoo Min Lee1 , Eun Sil Kim2 , Sujin Choi3,4 , Hyo-Jeong Jang4,5 , Yu Bin Kim6 , So Yoon Choi7 , Byung-Ho Choe3,4 , Ben Kang3,4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The recent update on Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease initiative has added a decrease in fecal calprotectin (FC) to an acceptable range as an intermediate target for Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to investigate whether postinduction FC could predict future persistent remission (PR) and endoscopic healing (EH) after 1 year of treatment with infliximab (IFX) in pediatric patients with CD. Methods: This multicenter retrospective observational study included pediatric patients with CD who were followed up for at least 1 year after starting IFX. The association of postinduction FC with PR and EH was investigated. Results: A total of 132 patients were included in this study. PR and EH were observed in 71.2% (94/132) and 73.9% (82/111) of the patients, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the postinduction FC level was associated with PR (odds ratio [OR], 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.66; p=0.009). The FC levels at initiation of IFX and postinduction were significantly associated with EH (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.99; p=0.044 and OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.49; p=0.002, respectively). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal cutoff level for postinduction FC associated with PR was 122 mg/kg, and that associated with EH was 377 mg/kg. Conclusions: Postinduction FC was associated with PR and EH after 1 year of treatment with IFX in pediatric patients with CD. Our findings emphasize the importance of FC as an intermediate target in the treat-to-target era.

  • Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass to Visceral Fat Area Ratio Predicts Hepatic Morbidities

    Eugene Han1 , Yong-ho Lee2,3 , Sang Hoon Ahn2,4 , Bong-Soo Cha2,3 , Seung Up Kim2,4 , Byung-Wan Lee2,3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: Reports on the association between sarcopenic visceral obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-associated morbidities remain scarce. We investigated the association between sarcopenia and visceral obesity, and the influence of this association on hepatic and coronary comorbidities. Methods: The appendicular skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) was evaluated using bioelectric impedance analysis. NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis were assessed using transient elastography, and high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk was defined as a 10-year ASCVD risk score >10%. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted by body mass index (<0.789 for men and <0.512 for women). Results: In total, 82.0% (n=1,205) of the entire study population had NAFLD, and 14.6% of these individuals (n=176) exhibited significant liver fibrosis. Individuals with the lowest SV ratio had a significantly increased risk of NAFLD, significant liver fibrosis, and high ASCVD risk (all p<0.05). Individuals with both the lowest SV ratio and sarcopenia had the highest risk of developing NAFLD (odds ratio [OR]=3.11), significant liver fibrosis (OR=2.03), and high ASCVD risk (OR=4.15), compared with those with a higher SV ratio and without sarcopenia (all p<0.05). Conclusions: Low SV ratio combined with sarcopenia was significantly associated with an increased risk of NAFLD, significant liver fibrosis, and high ASCVD risk among individuals with a high risk of NAFLD.

  • Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Shows T-Cell Exhaustion Landscape in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    Jia Yao1,2 , Yaqiu Ji3 , Tian Liu1 , Jinjia Bai1 , Han Wang1 , Ruoyu Yao1 , Juan Wang1 , Xiaoshuang Zhou4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: The occurrence and development of hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is closely related to the immune pathway. We explored the heterogeneity of peripheral blood T cell subsets and the characteristics of exhausted T lymphocytes, in an attempt to identify potential therapeutic target molecules for immune dysfunction in ACLF patients.Methods: A total of 83,577 T cells from HBV-ACLF patients and healthy controls were screened for heterogeneity by single-cell RNA sequencing. In addition, exhausted T-lymphocyte subsets were screened to analyze their gene expression profiles, and their developmental trajectories were investigated. Subsequently, the expression of exhausted T cells and their capacity in secreting cytokines (interleukin 2, interferon γ, and tumor necrosis factor α) were validated by flow cytometry.Results: A total of eight stable clusters were identified, among which CD4+ TIGIT+ subset and CD8+ LAG-3+ subset, with high expression of exhaust genes, were significantly higher in the HBV-ACLF patients than in normal controls. As shown by pseudotime analysis, T cells experienced a transition from naïve T cells to effector T cells and then exhausted T cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that the CD4+TIGIT+ subset and CD8+LAG-3+ subset in the peripheral blood of the ACLF patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Moreover, in vitro cultured CD8+LAG-3+ T cells were significantly fewer capable of secreting cytokines than CD8+LAG-3- subset.Conclusions: Peripheral blood T cells are heterogeneous in HBV-ACLF. The exhausted T cells markedly increase during the pathogenesis of ACLF, suggesting that T-cell exhaustion is involved in the immune dysfunction of HBV-ACLF patients.

  • A Silent Outbreak of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection or False-Positive Reaction of Anti-HEV IgM after COVID-19 Vaccination? Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak in a Korean Factory Complex in 2022

    Jeonghyeon Oh1 , Gwang Hyeon Choi2 , Yeonhwa Chang1 , Jina Kim1 , Kunhee Park1 , Hansol Yeom3 , Soonryu Seo3 , Jin Gwack3 , Sook-Hyang Jeong2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: To investigate a reported outbreak of presumed hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in a Korean food manufacturing facility and to explore the association between anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) positivity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection or vaccination.Methods: Twenty-four cases of anti-HEV IgM positivity were reported among 646 workers at the facility in 2022. An epidemiological investigation was conducted, comprising HEV-RNA testing of blood and environmental samples, analysis of group meal records, and an association between anti-HEV IgM positivity and confirmed COVID-19 infection or vaccination.Results: All 24 patients were asymptomatic, with cases spread sporadically across the facility. HEV RNA was not detected in the serum or environmental samples. Four out of 340 meals (1.2%) showed a significantly higher proportion of anti-HEV positivity in each meal intake group than in the non-intake group on certain days. Although the cumulative rate of COVID-19 infection showed no difference, the anti-HEV IgM positive group showed significantly higher proportions of >2 doses of COVID-19 vaccination (83.3% vs 48.7%, p=0.021), vaccination within 90 days (45.8% vs 19.7%, p=0.008), and having the Moderna vaccine administered as the last vaccine (75.0% vs 14.5%, p

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Clinical Outcomes of Secondary Duodenal Self-Expandable Metallic Stenting for Duodenal Stent Dysfunction in Patients with Malignant Duodenal Obstruction: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Hoonsub So1 , Hyun Don Joo2 , Tae Jun Song3 , Sung Woo Ko4 , Ho Seung Lee3 , Sung Hyun Cho3 , Dongwook Oh3 , Sung Yong Han5 , Dong Uk Kim5 , Dong-Wan Seo3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Long-term Outcomes of Ampullary Adenoma According to Resected Margin Status after Endoscopic Papillectomy

    Junghwan Lee1 , Dongwook Oh2 , Dong-Wan Seo2 , Tae Jun Song2 , Do Hyun Park2 , Sung Koo Lee2 , Seung-Mo Hong3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • A Novel Retractable Robotic Device for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Sang Hyun Kim1 , Chanwoo Kim2 , Bora Keum1 , Junghyun Im2 , Seonghyeon Won2 , Byung Gon Kim2 , Kyungnam Kim2 , Taebin Kwon2 , Daehie Hong2 , Han Jo Jeon1 , Hyuk Soon Choi1,3 , Eun Sun Kim1 , Yoon Tae Jeen1 , Hoon Jai Chun1 , Joo Ha Hwang3

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis in Korea: A Nationwide Survey

    Eui Joo Kim1,2 , Sang Hyub Lee3 , Min Kyu Jung4 , Dong Kee Jang5 , Jung Hyun Jo6 , Jae Min Lee7 , Jung Wan Choe8 , Sung Yong Han9 , Young Hoon Choi10 , Seong-Hun Kim11 , Jin Myung Park12 , Kyu-Hyun Paik13

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Relation to Helicobacter pylori Infection and Eradication Status: A Large-Scale Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Eun-Bi Jeon1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Beom Joon Kim3 , In-Chang Hwang1 , Sang Bin Kim1 , Ji-Hyun Kim1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Yu Kyung Jun1 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,2 , Soyeon Ahn4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Efficacy and Safety of Surgical Resection in Elderly Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Jin-Soo Lee1 , Dong Ah Park2 , Seungeun Ryoo2 , Jungeun Park2 , Gi Hong Choi3 , Jeong-Ju Yoo1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Gallstone Dissolution Effects of Combination Therapy with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Ursodeoxycholic Acid: A Randomized, Prospective, Preliminary Clinical Trial

    See Young Lee1 , Sung Ill Jang1 , Jae Hee Cho1 , Min Young Do1 , Su Yeon Lee1 , Arong Choi1 , Hye Sun Lee2 , Juyeon Yang2 , Dong Ki Lee1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Predictors of Choledocholithiasis in Cholecystectomy Patients and Their Cutoff Values and Prediction Model in Korea in Comparison with the 2019 ASGE Guidelines

    Jung Hun Woo1 , Hwanhyi Cho1 , Kihyun Ryu1 , Young Woo Choi1 , Sanghyuk Lee1 , Tae Hee Lee1 , Dae Sung Kim1 , In Seok Choi2 , Ju Ik Moon2 , Seung Jae Lee2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • The Circular RNA Circ_0043947 Promoted Gastric Cancer Progression by Sponging miR-384 to Regulate CREB1 Expression

    Chongxin Zhang1 , Fan Zhang1 , Yukun Li1 , Pengfei Yang1 , Yang Liu2 , Wenxiao Yang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Unraveling the Heterogeneity of CD8+ T-Cell Subsets in Liver Cirrhosis: Implications for Disease Progression

    Kepu Zheng1 , Leiyang Dai2 , Shengning Zhang1 , Yingpeng Zhao1 , Wang Li1 , Yang Gao1 , Yuanyi Mang1 , Lingfeng Jiao1 , Yu Tang3 , Jianghua Ran1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • A New Risk Prediction Model for Detecting Endoscopic Activity of Ulcerative Colitis

    Guoyu Guan1 , Sangdan Zhuoga1 , Songbai Zheng1 , Kangqiao Xu2 , Tingwen Weng3 , Wensi Qian4 , Danian Ji5 , Xiaofeng Yu6

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Long-term Outcome of Asymptomatic Esophageal Eosinophilia

    Yugo Suzuki1 , Yorinari Ochiai1 , Daisuke Kikuchi1 , Mako Koseki1 , Kenichi Ohashi2 , Shu Hoteya1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Precirrhotic Primary Biliary Cholangitis with Portal Hypertension: Bile Duct Injury Correlate

    Yi-Fan Hu1 , Shun-Xin Li1 , Hong-Li Liu2 , Zhi-Xiang Du1 , Shuang-Shuang Wang3 , Miao-Yang Chen1 , Li Wang1 , Qing-Fang Xiong1 , Yan-Dan Zhong1 , Du-Xian Liu4 , Yong-Feng Yang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Toward a Functional Cure for Hepatitis B

    Anna S. F. Lok

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Risk Assessment of Metachronous Gastric Neoplasm after Endoscopic Resection for Early Gastric Cancer According to Age at Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Seunghan Lee , Soo-Jeong Cho , Hyunsoo Chung , Bokyung Kim , Mi Jin Oh , Yun Suk Na , Jun Hee Lee , Jiyoon Kim , Sang Gyun Kim

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Combined DNA Methylation and Gastric Microbiome Marker Predicts Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastric Cancer

    Min-Jeong Kim1 , Han-Na Kim2,3 , Jonathan P. Jacobs4,5 , Hyo-Joon Yang1,6

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Rebamipide Prevents the Hemoglobin Drop Related to Mucosal-Damaging Agents at a Level Comparable to Proton Pump Inhibitors

    Ji Eun Kim1 , Yeong Chan Lee2 , Tae Se Kim1 , Eun Ran Kim1 , Sung Noh Hong1 , Young-Ho Kim1 , Kyunga Kim3 , Dong Kyung Chang1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Quality Indicators of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Korea

    Hyung Ku Chon1,2 , Ki-Hyun Kim3 , Tae Jun Song4 , Dong-Won Ahn5 , Eaum Seok Lee6 , Yun Nah Lee7 , Yoon Suk Lee8 , Tae Joo Jeon9 , Chang Hwan Park3 , Kwang Bum Cho10 , Dong Wook Lee11 , Jin-Seok Park12 , Seung Bae Yoon13 , Kwang Hyun Chung14 , Jin Lee15 , Miyoung Choi16

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Daily Diet and Nutrition Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer Incidence in a Japanese Population

    Ayaka Takasu1 , Takuji Gotoda1,2 , Sho Suzuki3 , Chika Kusano4 , Chiho Goto5 , Hideki Ishikawa6 , Hirofumi Kogure1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Influence of Cytokine Genetic Polymorphisms in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Inflammation According to Sex in South Korea

    Hee Jin Kim1 , Nayoung Kim2,3,4 , Jae Young Jang2,3,4 , Sihyun Kim2 , Jongchan Lee2 , Hyeon Jeong Oh5

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Molecular Activity of Inflammation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in the Microenvironment of Ulcerative Colitis

    Yu Kyung Jun1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Ji Hyun Park2 , Hyung Kyung Kim3,4 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Ji Ae Lee3 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , Dong Ho Lee1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Tumor-Derived Exosomal Circular RNA Pinin Induces FGF13 Expression to Promote Colorectal Cancer Progression through miR-1225-5p

    Xianghui Liao1 , Tuhua Li1 , Li Yang1 , Haiwen Li2 , Weiru Li1 , Yuting Liu3 , Zhong Xie1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • The Association between Educational Attainment and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Chinese Adults: Findings from the REACTION Study

    Yuanyue Zhu1,2 , Long Wang1,2 , Lin Lin1,2 , Yanan Huo3 , Qin Wan4 , Yingfen Qin5 , Ruying Hu6 , Lixin Shi7 , Qing Su8 , Xuefeng Yu9 , Li Yan10 , Guijun Qin11 , Xulei Tang12 , Gang Chen13 , Shuangyuan Wang1,2 , Hong Lin1,2 , Xueyan Wu1,2 , Chunyan Hu1,2 , Mian Li1,2 , Min Xu1,2 , Yu Xu1,2 , Tiange Wang1,2 , Zhiyun Zhao1,2 , Zhengnan Gao14 , Guixia Wang15 , Feixia Shen16 , Xuejiang Gu16 , Zuojie Luo5 , Li Chen17 , Qiang Li18 , Zhen Ye6 , Yinfei Zhang19 , Chao Liu20 , Youmin Wang21 , Shengli Wu22 , Tao Yang23 , Huacong Deng24 , Lulu Chen25 , Tianshu Zeng25 , Jiajun Zhao26 , Yiming Mu27 , Weiqing Wang1,2 , Guang Ning1,2 , Yufang Bi1,2 , Yuhong Chen1,2 , Jieli Lu1,2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Real-World Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding for Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Warfarin Users: A Distributed Network Analysis Using a Common Data Model

    Jae Myung Cha1 , Myoungsuk Kim1 , Hyeong Ho Jo2 , Won-Woo Seo3 , Sang Youl Rhee4 , Ji Hyun Kim5 , Gwang Ha Kim6 , Junseok Park7

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Immune-Enhancing Treatment among Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Patients with Metabolic Abnormalities: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Xiaofei Huang1,2 , Wenjian Mao3 , Xingxing Hu1,2 , Fengxia Qin1,2,4 , Hui Zhao1,2 , Aiping Zhang1,2 , Xinyu Wang3 , Christian Stoppe5,6 , Dandan Zhou1,2 , Lu Ke3,7 , Haibin Ni1,2 , Chinese Acute Pancreatitis Clinical Trials Group (CAPCTG)

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Analysis of Recent Improvement of Survival Outcomes in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Who Underwent Upfront Surgery

    Jae Hyup Jung1 , Seung Hyun Won2 , Kwangrok Jung1 , Jun Suh Lee3 , Jong-Chan Lee1 , Jin Won Kim1 , Yoo‑Seok Yoon3 , Jin-Hyeok Hwang1 , Ho‑Seong Han3 , Jaihwan Kim1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Outcomes of Palliative Chemotherapy for Ampulla of Vater Adenocarcinoma: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Dong Kee Jang1 , So Jeong Kim2,3 , Hwe Hoon Chung4 , Jae Min Lee5 , Seung Bae Yoon6 , Jong-Chan Lee7 , Dong Woo Shin8 , Jin-Hyeok Hwang7 , Min Kyu Jung9 , Yoon Suk Lee10 , Hee Seung Lee2 , Joo Kyung Park4 , Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • The Possible Preventative Role of Lactate- and Butyrate-Producing Bacteria in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Chin-Hee Song1 , Nayoung Kim1,2 , Ryoung Hee Nam1 , Soo In Choi1 , Jae Young Jang1 , Eun Hye Kim1 , Jina Choi1 , Yonghoon Choi1 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Sun Min Lee3 , Yeong-Jae Seok4

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Associations among the Duodenal Ecosystem, Gut Microbiota, and Nutrient Intake in Functional Dyspepsia

    Sang Hoon Kim1 , Yura Choi2 , Jihong Oh2 , Eui Yeon Lim3 , Jung Eun Lee3,4 , Eun-Ji Song5 , Young-Do Nam5 , Hojun Kim2

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Differential Diagnosis of Thickened Gastric Wall between Hypertrophic Gastritis and Borrmann Type 4 Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Jun-young Seo1,2 , Do Hoon Kim1 , Ji Yong Ahn1 , Kee Don Choi1 , Hwa Jung Kim3 , Hee Kyong Na1 , Jeong Hoon Lee1 , Kee Wook Jung1 , Ho June Song1 , Gin Hyug Lee1 , Hwoon-Yong Jung1

    Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

  • Abstract : Background/Aims: This study aimed to analyze the trends in mortality attributed to hepatitis B and C around the Western Pacific region from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study for a systematic analysis. The deaths related to hepatitis B and C were analyzed by age, sex, year, risk factors, geographical location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Results: From 1990 to 2019, the annual total deaths from hepatitis B decreased from 0.266 to 0.210 million and those from hepatitis C increased from 0.119 to 0.142 million in the Western Pacific region. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of hepatitis B and C decreased by 63.5% and 48.0%, respectively. The declines in the ASMR related to hepatitis B and C were only detected in 12 and two Western Pacific countries, respectively. As the major risk factors, the contribution of alcohol use to hepatitis B deaths was 52% and drug use to hepatitis C was 80%. In males and females, the ASMR attributed to hepatitis B decreased by 61% and 71%, respectively, and the ASMR attributed to hepatitis C decreased by 43% and 55%, respectively. The association between SDI and ASMRs suggested that hepatitis B and C, respectively, showed an overall decline and stable trends as the SDI improved in the Western Pacific region. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate from hepatitis B and C decreased from 1990 to 2019, notable variation was observed among 27 Western Pacific countries. Efforts targeting hepatitis B and C prevention and treatment are still required in this region, especially for the pandemic countries.

Gut and Liver

Vol.18 No.3
May, 2024

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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Gut and Liver

Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut and Liver delivers up-to-date,t authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology.

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