Gut Liver 2012; 6(2): 284-285 An Unusual Cause of Inguinal Hernia in a Male Patient: Endometriosis
Author Information
Gulcin Simsek*, Hakan Bulus

*Department of Pathology, Kecioren Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Department of General Surgery, Kecioren Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Department of Gastroenterology, Osmaniye Public Hospital, Osmaniye, Turkey.

§Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Correspondence to: Adnan Tas. Department of Gastroenterology, Osmaniye Public Hospital, Raufbey Mah., Atatürk Cad., No: 432 A-Z blok ev no: 14, Osmaniye, Turkey. Tel: +90-328-2617100, Fax: +90-328-8261224,
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Endometriosis is an ectopic endometrium, commonplaced in the female. But its occurence in the man is mysterious. In the literature two cases of endometriosis in men have occured following surgery.1 The present case is the first reported arising in the inguinal region, near the ductus deference.

Forty-nine years old man was presented to hospital with left inguinal hernia. He was operated from that area for 3 times, before. Furthermore he has unexplained infertility. His physical examination revealed normal external genitelia. He underwent surgical operation for hernia. In the operation, a mass was discovered beside the spermatic cord and sent to our laboratory. Macroscopically the mass was 8×7×6 cm in diameters (Fig. 1). In dissection cystic cavity was seen and beside it, ductus deferens was identified. Cyst wall was containing small lumens that was thought as small vessels. In microscopic examination, cyst was lined with columnar epithelial cells and simple tubular invaginations showing the same type of cell lining, and cellular stroma, with typical features of endometrial mucosa. In addition, there was smooth muscle proliferation and some endometrial glands and stroma in these areas (Fig. 2). The pathological diagnosis was endometriosis. Chromosom analysis was normal (46, XY). The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the seven postoperative day. The patient decided on regularly follow-up in the out-patient department.

Three theories of the pathogenesis of endometriosis have been proposed in the female: transplantation, coelomic metaplasia, and embryologic cell rests.2,3 Transplantation theory is obviously impossible in the male because of the absence of a source of menstruel material.1 The coelomic metaplasia could occur secondary to inflammatory and hormonal influences. This theory could explain endometriosis in women with Mullerian agenesis, who have an absent uterus or the occasional presence of endometriosis in men.4 Third theory, also known as induction theory, is based on induction of the embryologic cell rests. Between the utricle and the appendices testes, cell rests may persist. These mullerian cell rests would be expected to lie along the course of the ejaculatory and deferent ducts.1 In this case, endometriosis was diagnosed along the ductus deferens; so this theory is very likely for this case. This patient has used a drug named of Fertilin, for sperm maturation and activation. The drug consists of clomiphen citrate that shows antiestrogenic affect by binding estrogen receptors in hypothalamus and hypophysis.5 It is a contrary event for the cases in the literature that were associated with prolonged estrogen therapy which appearing to be necessary for the development of endometriosis in the male. But also it is surprising not to have seen this phenomenon more frequently in men with prostatic carcinoma treated with estrogens. So, in our case additional factor must have been for the development of the lesion.

In conclusion, endometriosis within an inguinal hernia is an exceptionally rare event; most surgeons are unlikely to see one. All previously reported elderly cases underwent estrogen therapy for prostatic carcinoma, contrary, our patient had antiestrogenic therapy for infertility.

Fig. 1. Uterus-like mass beside the deferent ductus, holded area in the figure.
Fig. 2. High power field of endometriotic area (H&E stain, ×200).
  1. Pinkert TC, Catlow CE, Straus R. Endometriosis of the urinary bladder in a man with prostatic carcinoma. Cancer. 1979;43;1562-1567.
  2. Ridley JH. The hıstogenesıs of endometrıosıs: a review of facts and fancies. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1968;23;1-35.
  3. Rock JA, Markham SM. Pathogenesis of endometriosis. Lancet. 1992;340;1264-1267.
  4. Bontis JN, Vavilis DT. Etiopathology of endometriosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;816;305-309.
  5. Bozkirli I, Sinik Z, Isen K, Biri H. Erkek infertilitesinin ampirik tedavisinde klomifen sitrat ve L-arginin kombinasyonu. Turk J Fertil. 1997;5;146-150.
Fig. 1. Uterus-like mass beside the deferent ductus, holded area in the figure.
Fig. 2. High power field of endometriotic area (H&E stain, ×200).
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