Article Search
검색
검색 팝업 닫기

Metrics

Help

  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
  • 4. Articles
  • 5. Instructions for Authors
  • 6. File Download (PDF version)
  • 7. Ethical Standards
  • 8. Peer Review

    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

Search

Search

Year

to

Article Type

ahead

Split Viewer

Online first

The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Mortality in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Korean National Cohort Study

Woo Jin Yang1 , Danbee Kang2 , Myung Gyu Song1 , Tae-Seok Seo1 , and Ji Hoon Kim3

1Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, and 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Myung Gyu Song
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9861-2886
E-mail acube808@naver.com

Woo Jin Yang and Danbee Kang contributed equally to this work as first authors.

Received: December 8, 2021; Revised: January 6, 2022; Accepted: January 18, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gut Liver

Published online April 22, 2022

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Abstract

Background/Aims: We studied the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and analyzed the effect of SES on initial treatment allocation.
Methods: A cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Service- National Sample Cohort of Korea. A total of 3,032 hepatocellular carcinoma patients who were newly diagnosed between January 2003 and December 2013 were included. Income level was categorized as Medical Aid and ≤30th, 31st–70th, or >70th percentile as an SES indicator.
Results: The proportion of Medical Aid was 4.3%. The highest risks of all-cause mortality associated with Medical Aid were evident in the transcatheter arterial chemoembolization group (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 4.58), the other treatments group (fully adjusted HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.85 to 4.41), and the no treatment group (fully adjusted HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.79 to 4.04) but not in the curative treatment group. An association between the lower-income percentile and higher liver cancer-specific mortality was also observed, except in the curative treatment group. The association between income percentile and all-cause mortality was nonlinear, with a stronger association in the lower-income percentiles than in the higher income percentiles (p-value for nonlinear spline terms <0.05).
Conclusions: Patients in the lower SES group, especially patients not eligible for curative treatment, had an increased risk of mortality. In addition, the association between SES and the risk for mortality was stronger in the lower-income percentile than in the moderate to higher income percentiles.

Keywords: Carcinoma, hepatocellular, Mortality, Social class, Socioeconomic status


Article

ahead

Gut and Liver

Published online April 22, 2022

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Mortality in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Korean National Cohort Study

Woo Jin Yang1 , Danbee Kang2 , Myung Gyu Song1 , Tae-Seok Seo1 , and Ji Hoon Kim3

1Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, and 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Myung Gyu Song
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9861-2886
E-mail acube808@naver.com

Woo Jin Yang and Danbee Kang contributed equally to this work as first authors.

Received: December 8, 2021; Revised: January 6, 2022; Accepted: January 18, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background/Aims: We studied the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and analyzed the effect of SES on initial treatment allocation.
Methods: A cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Service- National Sample Cohort of Korea. A total of 3,032 hepatocellular carcinoma patients who were newly diagnosed between January 2003 and December 2013 were included. Income level was categorized as Medical Aid and ≤30th, 31st–70th, or >70th percentile as an SES indicator.
Results: The proportion of Medical Aid was 4.3%. The highest risks of all-cause mortality associated with Medical Aid were evident in the transcatheter arterial chemoembolization group (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 4.58), the other treatments group (fully adjusted HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.85 to 4.41), and the no treatment group (fully adjusted HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.79 to 4.04) but not in the curative treatment group. An association between the lower-income percentile and higher liver cancer-specific mortality was also observed, except in the curative treatment group. The association between income percentile and all-cause mortality was nonlinear, with a stronger association in the lower-income percentiles than in the higher income percentiles (p-value for nonlinear spline terms <0.05).
Conclusions: Patients in the lower SES group, especially patients not eligible for curative treatment, had an increased risk of mortality. In addition, the association between SES and the risk for mortality was stronger in the lower-income percentile than in the moderate to higher income percentiles.

Keywords: Carcinoma, hepatocellular, Mortality, Social class, Socioeconomic status

Gut and Liver

Vol.16 No.3
May, 2022

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

qrcode
qrcode

Supplementary

Share this article on :

  • line

Popular Keywords

Gut and LiverQR code Download
qr-code

Editorial Office