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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

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    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
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Changing Patterns of Causative Pathogens over Time and Efficacy of Empirical Antibiotic Therapies in Acute Cholangitis with Bacteremia

Han Taek Jeong , Jeong Eun Song , Ho Gak Kim , and Jimin Han

Department of Internal Medicine, Daegu Catholic University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea

Correspondence to:Jimin Han
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8674-370X
E-mail jmhan@cu.ac.kr

Received: October 14, 2021; Revised: December 21, 2021; Accepted: January 4, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gut Liver

Published online March 24, 2022

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Abstract

Background/Aims: To select appropriate empirical antibiotics, updates on the changes in pathogens are essential. We aimed to investigate the changes in pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in acute cholangitis (AC) with bacteremia over a period of 15 years. Furthermore, the efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapies and the risk factors predicting antibiotic-resistant pathogens (ARPs) were analyzed.
Methods: A total of 568 patients with AC and bacteremia who were admitted to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from January 2006 to December 2020 were included. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, the data were grouped and analyzed at 3-year intervals under the criteria of Tokyo Guideline 2018.
Results: During the study period, 596 pathogens were isolated from blood cultures of 568 patients. The three most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (50.5%), Klebsiella species (24.5%), and Enterococcus species (8.1%). The proportion of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) has increased since the mid-2010 (0.0% to 4.3%, p=0.007). There was emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in 2018 to 2020, albeit not statistically significant (1.3%, p=0.096). Risk factors predicting ARP were healthcare-associated infection, history of previous biliary intervention, and the severity of AC. For patients with these aforementioned risk factors, imipenem was the most effective antibiotic and piperacillin-tazobactam was also effective but to a lesser degree (susceptibility rates of 92.1% and 75.0%, respectively).
Conclusions: The proportion of VRE has increased and CRE has emerged in AC. In addition, healthcare-associated infection, history of previous biliary intervention, and the severity of AC were independent risk factors predicting ARP. For patients with these risk factors, the administration of imipenem or piperacillin-tazobactam should be considered.

Keywords: Cholangitis, Bacteremia, Anti-bacterial agents, Drug resistance, microbial, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae


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Gut and Liver

Published online March 24, 2022

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Changing Patterns of Causative Pathogens over Time and Efficacy of Empirical Antibiotic Therapies in Acute Cholangitis with Bacteremia

Han Taek Jeong , Jeong Eun Song , Ho Gak Kim , and Jimin Han

Department of Internal Medicine, Daegu Catholic University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea

Correspondence to:Jimin Han
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8674-370X
E-mail jmhan@cu.ac.kr

Received: October 14, 2021; Revised: December 21, 2021; Accepted: January 4, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background/Aims: To select appropriate empirical antibiotics, updates on the changes in pathogens are essential. We aimed to investigate the changes in pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in acute cholangitis (AC) with bacteremia over a period of 15 years. Furthermore, the efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapies and the risk factors predicting antibiotic-resistant pathogens (ARPs) were analyzed.
Methods: A total of 568 patients with AC and bacteremia who were admitted to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from January 2006 to December 2020 were included. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, the data were grouped and analyzed at 3-year intervals under the criteria of Tokyo Guideline 2018.
Results: During the study period, 596 pathogens were isolated from blood cultures of 568 patients. The three most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (50.5%), Klebsiella species (24.5%), and Enterococcus species (8.1%). The proportion of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) has increased since the mid-2010 (0.0% to 4.3%, p=0.007). There was emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in 2018 to 2020, albeit not statistically significant (1.3%, p=0.096). Risk factors predicting ARP were healthcare-associated infection, history of previous biliary intervention, and the severity of AC. For patients with these aforementioned risk factors, imipenem was the most effective antibiotic and piperacillin-tazobactam was also effective but to a lesser degree (susceptibility rates of 92.1% and 75.0%, respectively).
Conclusions: The proportion of VRE has increased and CRE has emerged in AC. In addition, healthcare-associated infection, history of previous biliary intervention, and the severity of AC were independent risk factors predicting ARP. For patients with these risk factors, the administration of imipenem or piperacillin-tazobactam should be considered.

Keywords: Cholangitis, Bacteremia, Anti-bacterial agents, Drug resistance, microbial, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

Gut and Liver

Vol.16 No.3
May, 2022

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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