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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

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Type 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Consensus and Controversies

Yoh Zen

Institute of Liver Studies, King’s College Hospital & King’s College London, London, UK

Correspondence to:Yoh Zen
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8370-6508
E-mail yoh.1.zen@kcl.ac.uk

Received: May 27, 2021; Accepted: July 15, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gut and Liver

Published online October 21, 2021

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Abstract

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has attracted much attention in the last two decades, and due to the diagnostic value of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), the number of cases diagnosed in clinical practice has markedly increased. However, in contrast to prototypic IgG4-related type 1 AIP, a minor subtype of AIP, referred to as type 2 AIP, is less widely known and has thus not yet been characterized in detail. Type 2 AIP is unrelated to IgG4 and is a completely distinct entity from type 1 AIP. One confusing factor is that the two types of AIP share patterns of clinical presentation (e.g., acute pancreatitis and painless jaundice) and imaging abnormalities (e.g., diffuse or segmental enlargement). Since there are currently no established serum markers, the diagnosis of type 2 AIP is highly challenging and requires the tissue confirmation of neutrophilic injury to the pancreatic ducts, a finding designated as a granulocytic epithelial lesion. Approximately one-third of cases are associated with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly ulcerative colitis; however, the pathological relationship between these two conditions has not yet been clarified. Unanswered questions relate to its pathophysiology, the potential development of a similar granulocytic injury in other organs, and the characteristics of pediatric cases. This review summarizes consensus and controversies surrounding type 2 AIP, with the aim of increasing awareness and highlighting the unmet needs of this underrecognized condition.

Keywords: Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis, Autoimmune pancreatitis, Immunoglobulin G, Granulocytic epithelial lesion, Colitis, ulcerative


Article

ahead

Gut and Liver

Published online October 21, 2021

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Type 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Consensus and Controversies

Yoh Zen

Institute of Liver Studies, King’s College Hospital & King’s College London, London, UK

Correspondence to:Yoh Zen
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8370-6508
E-mail yoh.1.zen@kcl.ac.uk

Received: May 27, 2021; Accepted: July 15, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has attracted much attention in the last two decades, and due to the diagnostic value of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), the number of cases diagnosed in clinical practice has markedly increased. However, in contrast to prototypic IgG4-related type 1 AIP, a minor subtype of AIP, referred to as type 2 AIP, is less widely known and has thus not yet been characterized in detail. Type 2 AIP is unrelated to IgG4 and is a completely distinct entity from type 1 AIP. One confusing factor is that the two types of AIP share patterns of clinical presentation (e.g., acute pancreatitis and painless jaundice) and imaging abnormalities (e.g., diffuse or segmental enlargement). Since there are currently no established serum markers, the diagnosis of type 2 AIP is highly challenging and requires the tissue confirmation of neutrophilic injury to the pancreatic ducts, a finding designated as a granulocytic epithelial lesion. Approximately one-third of cases are associated with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly ulcerative colitis; however, the pathological relationship between these two conditions has not yet been clarified. Unanswered questions relate to its pathophysiology, the potential development of a similar granulocytic injury in other organs, and the characteristics of pediatric cases. This review summarizes consensus and controversies surrounding type 2 AIP, with the aim of increasing awareness and highlighting the unmet needs of this underrecognized condition.

Keywords: Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis, Autoimmune pancreatitis, Immunoglobulin G, Granulocytic epithelial lesion, Colitis, ulcerative

Gut and Liver

Vol.15 No.6
November, 2021

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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