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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

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Multidimensional Biomarker Analysis Including Mitochondrial Stress Indicators for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Eunha Chang1,2 , Jae Seung Chang2 , In Deok Kong1 , Soon Koo Baik2,3 , Moon Young Kim2,3 , and Kyu-Sang Park1,2

1Department of Physiology, 2Mitohormesis Research Center, and 3Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea

Correspondence to:Kyu-Sang Park
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0322-9807
E-mail qsang@yonsei.ac.kr
Moon Young Kim
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8566-2091
E-mail drkimmy@yonsei.ac.kr

Received: March 10, 2021; Revised: June 15, 2021; Accepted: June 22, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gut and Liver

Published online August 24, 2021

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accompanied by a complex and multifactorial pathogenesis with sequential progressions from inflammation to fibrosis and then to cancer. This heterogeneity interferes with the development of precise diagnostic and prognostic strategies for NAFLD. The current approach for the diagnosis of simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis mainly consists of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, elastography, and various serological analyses. However, individual dry and wet biomarkers have limitations demanding an integrative approach for the assessment of disease progression. Here, we review diagnostic strategies for simple steatosis, steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, followed by potential biomarkers associated with fat accumulation and mitochondrial stress. For mitochondrial stress indicators, we focused on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-related growth factor and mitochondrial-derived peptides. Each biomarker may not strongly indicate the severity of steatosis or steatohepatitis. Instead, multidimensional analysis of different groups of biomarkers based on pathogenic mechanisms may provide decisive diagnostic/prognostic information to develop a therapeutic plan for patients with NAFLD. For this purpose, mitochondrial stress indicators, such as FGF21 or GDF15, could be an important component in the multiplexed and contextual interpretation of NAFLD. Further validation of the integrative evaluation of mitochondrial stress indicators combined with other biomarkers is needed in the diagnosis/prognosis of NAFLD.

Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Biomarkers, Mitochondrial stress, Fibroblast growth factor 21, Growth differentiation factor 15


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ahead

Gut and Liver

Published online August 24, 2021

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Multidimensional Biomarker Analysis Including Mitochondrial Stress Indicators for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Eunha Chang1,2 , Jae Seung Chang2 , In Deok Kong1 , Soon Koo Baik2,3 , Moon Young Kim2,3 , and Kyu-Sang Park1,2

1Department of Physiology, 2Mitohormesis Research Center, and 3Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea

Correspondence to:Kyu-Sang Park
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0322-9807
E-mail qsang@yonsei.ac.kr
Moon Young Kim
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8566-2091
E-mail drkimmy@yonsei.ac.kr

Received: March 10, 2021; Revised: June 15, 2021; Accepted: June 22, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accompanied by a complex and multifactorial pathogenesis with sequential progressions from inflammation to fibrosis and then to cancer. This heterogeneity interferes with the development of precise diagnostic and prognostic strategies for NAFLD. The current approach for the diagnosis of simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis mainly consists of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, elastography, and various serological analyses. However, individual dry and wet biomarkers have limitations demanding an integrative approach for the assessment of disease progression. Here, we review diagnostic strategies for simple steatosis, steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, followed by potential biomarkers associated with fat accumulation and mitochondrial stress. For mitochondrial stress indicators, we focused on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-related growth factor and mitochondrial-derived peptides. Each biomarker may not strongly indicate the severity of steatosis or steatohepatitis. Instead, multidimensional analysis of different groups of biomarkers based on pathogenic mechanisms may provide decisive diagnostic/prognostic information to develop a therapeutic plan for patients with NAFLD. For this purpose, mitochondrial stress indicators, such as FGF21 or GDF15, could be an important component in the multiplexed and contextual interpretation of NAFLD. Further validation of the integrative evaluation of mitochondrial stress indicators combined with other biomarkers is needed in the diagnosis/prognosis of NAFLD.

Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Biomarkers, Mitochondrial stress, Fibroblast growth factor 21, Growth differentiation factor 15

Gut and Liver

Vol.15 No.5
September, 2021

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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