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  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
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    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

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Cardiovascular Risk Is Elevated in Lean Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Yuna Kim1,2 , Eugene Han3 , Jae Seung Lee1,2,4 , Hye Won Lee1,2,4 , Beom Kyung Kim1,2,4 , Mi Kyung Kim3 , Hye Soon Kim3 , Jun Yong Park1,2,4 , Do Young Kim1,2,4 , Sang Hoon Ahn1,2,4 , Byung-Wan Lee1,5 , Eun Seok Kang1,5 , Bong-Soo Cha1,5 , Yong-ho Lee1,5 , and Seung Up Kim1,2,4

1Department of Internal Medicine and 2Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, 4Yonsei Liver Center, Severance Hospital, and 5Institute of Endocrine Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Seung Up Kim
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9658-8050
E-mail ksukorea@yuhs.ac
Yong-ho Lee
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6219-4942
E-mail yholee@yuhs.ac
Yuna Kim and Eugene Han contributed equally to this work as first authors.

Received: February 22, 2021; Revised: April 28, 2021; Accepted: May 12, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gut and Liver

Published online July 12, 2021

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Abstract

Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear.
Methods: Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys database were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association guidelines.
Results: The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023).
Conclusions: Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Lean, Liver fibrosis, Fatty liver, Cardiovascular risk


Article

ahead

Gut and Liver

Published online July 12, 2021

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Cardiovascular Risk Is Elevated in Lean Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Yuna Kim1,2 , Eugene Han3 , Jae Seung Lee1,2,4 , Hye Won Lee1,2,4 , Beom Kyung Kim1,2,4 , Mi Kyung Kim3 , Hye Soon Kim3 , Jun Yong Park1,2,4 , Do Young Kim1,2,4 , Sang Hoon Ahn1,2,4 , Byung-Wan Lee1,5 , Eun Seok Kang1,5 , Bong-Soo Cha1,5 , Yong-ho Lee1,5 , and Seung Up Kim1,2,4

1Department of Internal Medicine and 2Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, 4Yonsei Liver Center, Severance Hospital, and 5Institute of Endocrine Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Seung Up Kim
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9658-8050
E-mail ksukorea@yuhs.ac
Yong-ho Lee
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6219-4942
E-mail yholee@yuhs.ac
Yuna Kim and Eugene Han contributed equally to this work as first authors.

Received: February 22, 2021; Revised: April 28, 2021; Accepted: May 12, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear.
Methods: Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys database were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association guidelines.
Results: The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023).
Conclusions: Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Lean, Liver fibrosis, Fatty liver, Cardiovascular risk

Gut and Liver

Vol.15 No.5
September, 2021

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

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