Article Search
검색
검색 팝업 닫기

Metrics

Help

  • 1. Aims and Scope

    Gut and Liver is an international journal of gastroenterology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tree, pancreas, motility, and neurogastroenterology. Gut atnd Liver delivers up-to-date, authoritative papers on both clinical and research-based topics in gastroenterology. The Journal publishes original articles, case reports, brief communications, letters to the editor and invited review articles in the field of gastroenterology. The Journal is operated by internationally renowned editorial boards and designed to provide a global opportunity to promote academic developments in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology. +MORE

  • 2. Editorial Board

    Editor-in-Chief + MORE

    Editor-in-Chief
    Yong Chan Lee Professor of Medicine
    Director, Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Univ. California San Francisco
    San Francisco, USA

    Deputy Editor

    Deputy Editor
    Jong Pil Im Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Robert S. Bresalier University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Steven H. Itzkowitz Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, USA
  • 3. Editorial Office
  • 4. Articles
  • 5. Instructions for Authors
  • 6. File Download (PDF version)
  • 7. Ethical Standards
  • 8. Peer Review

    All papers submitted to Gut and Liver are reviewed by the editorial team before being sent out for an external peer review to rule out papers that have low priority, insufficient originality, scientific flaws, or the absence of a message of importance to the readers of the Journal. A decision about these papers will usually be made within two or three weeks.
    The remaining articles are usually sent to two reviewers. It would be very helpful if you could suggest a selection of reviewers and include their contact details. We may not always use the reviewers you recommend, but suggesting reviewers will make our reviewer database much richer; in the end, everyone will benefit. We reserve the right to return manuscripts in which no reviewers are suggested.

    The final responsibility for the decision to accept or reject lies with the editors. In many cases, papers may be rejected despite favorable reviews because of editorial policy or a lack of space. The editor retains the right to determine publication priorities, the style of the paper, and to request, if necessary, that the material submitted be shortened for publication.

Search

Search

Year

to

Article Type

Case Report

Split Viewer

Pyloric Gland Adenoma of the Esophagus Treated by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Case Report

Kwangbeom Park1 , Do Hoon Kim1 , Sung Duck Lee1 , Hyun Lee2 , Hwoon-Yong Jung1

Departments of 1Gastroenterology and 2Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to: Do Hoon Kim
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4250-4683
E-mail dohoon.md@gmail.com

Received: August 5, 2021; Revised: October 26, 2021; Accepted: November 12, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gut Liver 2022;16(3):483-486. https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl210357

Published online February 11, 2022, Published date May 15, 2022

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the stomach and should be removed because of its precancerous potential. Although there have been case reports of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas such as the duodenum, pancreas, and bile duct, esophageal pyloric gland adenoma has never been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of esophageal pyloric gland adenoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

Keywords: Pyloric gland adenoma, Endoscopic submucosal dissection, Esophagus, Case reports

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm, mostly diagnosed in the stomach. It is a precancerous lesion with a transformation rate to adenocarcinoma of 12% to 47%.1 Although most cases are observed in the stomach, there are some case reports of pyloric gland adenomas arising in the duodenum,2 pancreas,3 gallbladder,4 and uterine cervix.5 While several cases of pyloric gland adenomas in the esophagus have also been reported,6-8 none have been in Korea. Herein, we report a case of a pyloric gland adenoma of the esophagus that was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Informed consent was obtained.

An 86-year-old man with symptoms of reflux underwent upper endoscopy at an outside hospital. Endoscopy showed a flat, elevated lesion on his upper esophagus. The biopsy revealed a pyloric gland adenoma. He had hypertension, benign prostate hypertrophy, and a history of coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm. The laboratory findings, including complete blood count, as well as liver function test and electrolyte and serum creatinine measurements, were normal. Upper endoscopy revealed a 1.2-cm-sized oval-shaped, flat elevated lesion with a nodular surface located 20 cm from the upper incisor teeth (Fig. 1A and B). Atrophic changes were visible in the antrum of the stomach and accompanied by multiple 1–3 mm sized, translucent, round, and smooth surfaced polyps on the fundus and the body of the stomach. Abnormal findings were not observed in the duodenum. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed reactive lymph nodes among the subcarinal, subaortic, and right lower paratracheal lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer (Fig. 1C). A biopsy showed a pyloric gland adenoma with low grade dysplasia. The lesion was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection (Fig. 2). Since the Lugol-void lesion was confined to the mucosal layer of the esophagus, the submucosal dissection of the pyloric gland adenoma was uncomplicated. The resected specimen size measured 2.0×1.4×0.3 cm and the tumor size was 1.1×0.6×0.2 cm. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the specimen was immunopositive for MUC6 (a pyloric gland mucin marker) and MUC5AC (a foveolar mucin marker). The specimen was also positive for p53 (intensity 2+) and the Ki-67 level was 10% to 20%. The final pathology result was a pyloric gland adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the resection margin was clear (Fig. 3).

Figure 1.Endoscopic findings of the esophageal pyloric gland adenoma. (A) White-light endoscopy showing a 1.2-cm, oval-shaped, flat, elevated lesion with nodularity located 20 cm from the upper incisor teeth. (B) Narrow-band imaging showing the brownish color change in the lesion with a gyrus-forming pattern in the background of normal-appearing esophageal mucosa. (C) Endoscopic ultrasonography showing a homogenous, hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer.

Figure 2.Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the pyloric gland adenoma. (A) Conventional white-light endoscopy showing the flat, elevated lesion with nodularity. (B) Chromoendoscopy with iodine staining to demarcate the Lugol-void lesion. (C) Marking around the lesion for endoscopic submucosal dissection. (D) Artificial ulcer after submucosal dissection. (E) Resected specimen with the lesion en bloc. (F) Resected specimen with the lesion on chromoendoscopy with iodine staining.

Figure 3.Gross and histologic findings. (A) Endoscopically dissected specimen showing a 1.1×0.6×0.2 cm-sized lesion. (B) Pyloric gland adenoma with adjacent esophageal mucosa (H&E, ×40). (C) Closely packed pyloric-type glands lined by cuboidal to low columnar epithelia with eosinophilic cytoplasm (H&E, ×100). (D) The superficial layer is predominantly immunopositive for Mucin 6 (×100). (E) Most glands are immunopositive for Mucin 5AC (×100).

Pyloric gland adenoma was first reported by Elster in 1976.9 In 1990, Watanabe et al.10 included pyloric gland adenoma in the World Health Organization gastric tumor classification. Cases of pyloric gland adenomas have been reported in the duodenum,2 pancreas,3 gallbladder,4 and uterine cervix.5 The literature on the clinicopathological features of pyloric gland adenomas suggests they are predominantly found in the body of the stomach (64%), in patients with an average age of 73 years, and in women (75%). A pyloric gland adenoma is often accompanied by autoimmune atrophic gastritis (40% of cases) and intestinal metaplasia (60% of cases).5,11 Endoscopically, most gastric pyloric gland adenomas appear as polypoid or mass-like lesions, although some of them do present as irregular mucosal, flat, ulcerative, or even submucosal tumor-like lesions.12,13 A case report described magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging of a gastric pyloric gland adenoma. On the magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging, a demarcation line and a granular surface structure were noted. Further, both the microvascular and microsurface structures were irregular.14 Endoscopic features of esophageal pyloric gland adenomas are not well known. The reported cases of esophageal pyloric gland adenomas have been polypoid, located in the upper or lower esophagus and arising in either Barrett’s esophagus or in normal esophageal epithelium.6-8 Histologically, a pyloric gland adenoma consists of closely packed cuboidal to low columnar epithelial cells with eosinophilic ground-glass cytoplasm.5,11 The nuclei are round and may have no nucleolus. Pyloric gland adenomas are associated with high-grade dysplasia and have a risk of transforming into adenocarcinomas (12% to 47% of cases).1 Immunohistochemistry is not always required to diagnose pyloric gland adenomas. However, Mucin 6 and Mucin 5AC stains can be used to confirm cases with uncertain diagnoses.1 On immunohistochemical examinations, pyloric gland adenomas express Mucin 6 throughout the lesion and its surface, with variable Mucin 5AC expression. Pyloric gland adenomas do not express intestinal markers such as Mucin 2 and CD10 in their pure form. However, pyloric gland adenomas may express Mucin 2 and CD10 when they are transformed from gastric to intestinal type. Pyloric gland adenomas tend to have a higher Ki-67 index when they have an adenocarcinoma component. It is hard to know the exact incidence or predominant site of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas as these adenomas are very rare. Some case reports have described extragastric pyloric gland adenomas in Barrett’s esophagus,6 heterotrophic gastric mucosa in the rectum,15 duodenum,2 gallbladder,3 and pancreatic duct.4 In Korea, only one case of pyloric gland adenoma in the stomach was reported.16 To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pyloric gland adenoma in the esophagus in Korea.

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Manuscript drafting: K.P. Literature review: S.D.L. Biopsied tissue examination: H.L. Study supervision and manuscript revision: D.H.K., H.Y.J. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  1. Vieth M, Kushima R, Mukaisho K, Sakai R, Kasami T, Hattori T. Immunohistochemical analysis of pyloric gland adenomas using a series of Mucin 2, Mucin 5AC, Mucin 6, CD10, Ki67 and p53. Virchows Arch 2010;457:529-536.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Kushima R, Rüthlein HJ, Stolte M, Bamba M, Hattori T, Borchard F. 'Pyloric gland-type adenoma' arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa of the duodenum, with dysplastic progression of the gastric type. Virchows Arch 1999;435:452-457.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Bakotic BW, Robinson MJ, Sturm PD, Hruban RH, Offerhaus GJ, Albores-Saavedra J. Pyloric gland adenoma of the main pancreatic duct. Am J Surg Pathol 1999;23:227-231.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kushima R, Remmele W, Stolte M, Borchard F. Pyloric gland type adenoma of the gallbladder with squamoid spindle cell metaplasia. Pathol Res Pract 1996;192:963-969.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Vieth M, Kushima R, Borchard F, Stolte M. Pyloric gland adenoma: a clinico-pathological analysis of 90 cases. Virchows Arch 2003;442:317-321.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Kushima R, Vieth M, Mukaisho K, et al. Pyloric gland adenoma arising in Barrett's esophagus with mucin immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic evaluation. Virchows Arch 2005;446:537-541.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Michal M, Curik R, Matler K, Benes Z. Regarding the paper by Vieth et al. Virchows Archiv 442/4:317-321. Virchows Arch 2003;443:589-590.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Chlumská A, Waloschek T, Mukenšnabl P, Martínek P, Kašpírková J, Zámečník M. Pyloric gland adenoma: a histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of 23 cases. Cesk Patol 2015;51:137-143.
    Pubmed
  9. Elster K. Histologic classification of gastric polyps. Curr Top Pathol 1976;63:77-93.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Watanabe H, Jass JR, Sobin LH. Histological typing of oesophageal and gastric tumours. Berlin: Springer, 1990.
    CrossRef
  11. Chen ZM, Scudiere JR, Abraham SC, Montgomery E. Pyloric gland adenoma: an entity distinct from gastric foveolar type adenoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:186-193.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Choi WT, Brown I, Ushiku T, et al. Gastric pyloric gland adenoma: a multicentre clinicopathological study of 67 cases. Histopathology 2018;72:1007-1014.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Min CC, Wu J, Hou F, et al. Gastric pyloric gland adenoma resembling a submucosal tumor: a case report. World J Clin Cases 2020;8:2380-2386.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Togo K, Ueo T, Yonemasu H. Pyloric gland adenoma observed by magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging. Dig Endosc 2014;26:755-756.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Vieth M, Kushima R, de Jonge JP, Borchard F, Oellig F, Stolte M. Adenoma with gastric differentiation (so-called pyloric gland adenoma) in a heterotopic gastric corpus mucosa in the rectum. Virchows Arch 2005;446:542-545.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Ahn JY, Suh SO, Jung JO, et al. A case of pyloric gland adenoma in the cardia of the stomach, treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Korean J Med 2011;80:78-81.

Article

Case Report

Gut and Liver 2022; 16(3): 483-486

Published online May 15, 2022 https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl210357

Copyright © Gut and Liver.

Pyloric Gland Adenoma of the Esophagus Treated by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Case Report

Kwangbeom Park1 , Do Hoon Kim1 , Sung Duck Lee1 , Hyun Lee2 , Hwoon-Yong Jung1

Departments of 1Gastroenterology and 2Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Do Hoon Kim
ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4250-4683
E-mail dohoon.md@gmail.com

Received: August 5, 2021; Revised: October 26, 2021; Accepted: November 12, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the stomach and should be removed because of its precancerous potential. Although there have been case reports of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas such as the duodenum, pancreas, and bile duct, esophageal pyloric gland adenoma has never been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of esophageal pyloric gland adenoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

Keywords: Pyloric gland adenoma, Endoscopic submucosal dissection, Esophagus, Case reports

INTRODUCTION

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm, mostly diagnosed in the stomach. It is a precancerous lesion with a transformation rate to adenocarcinoma of 12% to 47%.1 Although most cases are observed in the stomach, there are some case reports of pyloric gland adenomas arising in the duodenum,2 pancreas,3 gallbladder,4 and uterine cervix.5 While several cases of pyloric gland adenomas in the esophagus have also been reported,6-8 none have been in Korea. Herein, we report a case of a pyloric gland adenoma of the esophagus that was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Informed consent was obtained.

CASE REPORT

An 86-year-old man with symptoms of reflux underwent upper endoscopy at an outside hospital. Endoscopy showed a flat, elevated lesion on his upper esophagus. The biopsy revealed a pyloric gland adenoma. He had hypertension, benign prostate hypertrophy, and a history of coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm. The laboratory findings, including complete blood count, as well as liver function test and electrolyte and serum creatinine measurements, were normal. Upper endoscopy revealed a 1.2-cm-sized oval-shaped, flat elevated lesion with a nodular surface located 20 cm from the upper incisor teeth (Fig. 1A and B). Atrophic changes were visible in the antrum of the stomach and accompanied by multiple 1–3 mm sized, translucent, round, and smooth surfaced polyps on the fundus and the body of the stomach. Abnormal findings were not observed in the duodenum. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed reactive lymph nodes among the subcarinal, subaortic, and right lower paratracheal lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer (Fig. 1C). A biopsy showed a pyloric gland adenoma with low grade dysplasia. The lesion was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection (Fig. 2). Since the Lugol-void lesion was confined to the mucosal layer of the esophagus, the submucosal dissection of the pyloric gland adenoma was uncomplicated. The resected specimen size measured 2.0×1.4×0.3 cm and the tumor size was 1.1×0.6×0.2 cm. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the specimen was immunopositive for MUC6 (a pyloric gland mucin marker) and MUC5AC (a foveolar mucin marker). The specimen was also positive for p53 (intensity 2+) and the Ki-67 level was 10% to 20%. The final pathology result was a pyloric gland adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the resection margin was clear (Fig. 3).

Figure 1. Endoscopic findings of the esophageal pyloric gland adenoma. (A) White-light endoscopy showing a 1.2-cm, oval-shaped, flat, elevated lesion with nodularity located 20 cm from the upper incisor teeth. (B) Narrow-band imaging showing the brownish color change in the lesion with a gyrus-forming pattern in the background of normal-appearing esophageal mucosa. (C) Endoscopic ultrasonography showing a homogenous, hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer.

Figure 2. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the pyloric gland adenoma. (A) Conventional white-light endoscopy showing the flat, elevated lesion with nodularity. (B) Chromoendoscopy with iodine staining to demarcate the Lugol-void lesion. (C) Marking around the lesion for endoscopic submucosal dissection. (D) Artificial ulcer after submucosal dissection. (E) Resected specimen with the lesion en bloc. (F) Resected specimen with the lesion on chromoendoscopy with iodine staining.

Figure 3. Gross and histologic findings. (A) Endoscopically dissected specimen showing a 1.1×0.6×0.2 cm-sized lesion. (B) Pyloric gland adenoma with adjacent esophageal mucosa (H&E, ×40). (C) Closely packed pyloric-type glands lined by cuboidal to low columnar epithelia with eosinophilic cytoplasm (H&E, ×100). (D) The superficial layer is predominantly immunopositive for Mucin 6 (×100). (E) Most glands are immunopositive for Mucin 5AC (×100).

DISCUSSION

Pyloric gland adenoma was first reported by Elster in 1976.9 In 1990, Watanabe et al.10 included pyloric gland adenoma in the World Health Organization gastric tumor classification. Cases of pyloric gland adenomas have been reported in the duodenum,2 pancreas,3 gallbladder,4 and uterine cervix.5 The literature on the clinicopathological features of pyloric gland adenomas suggests they are predominantly found in the body of the stomach (64%), in patients with an average age of 73 years, and in women (75%). A pyloric gland adenoma is often accompanied by autoimmune atrophic gastritis (40% of cases) and intestinal metaplasia (60% of cases).5,11 Endoscopically, most gastric pyloric gland adenomas appear as polypoid or mass-like lesions, although some of them do present as irregular mucosal, flat, ulcerative, or even submucosal tumor-like lesions.12,13 A case report described magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging of a gastric pyloric gland adenoma. On the magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging, a demarcation line and a granular surface structure were noted. Further, both the microvascular and microsurface structures were irregular.14 Endoscopic features of esophageal pyloric gland adenomas are not well known. The reported cases of esophageal pyloric gland adenomas have been polypoid, located in the upper or lower esophagus and arising in either Barrett’s esophagus or in normal esophageal epithelium.6-8 Histologically, a pyloric gland adenoma consists of closely packed cuboidal to low columnar epithelial cells with eosinophilic ground-glass cytoplasm.5,11 The nuclei are round and may have no nucleolus. Pyloric gland adenomas are associated with high-grade dysplasia and have a risk of transforming into adenocarcinomas (12% to 47% of cases).1 Immunohistochemistry is not always required to diagnose pyloric gland adenomas. However, Mucin 6 and Mucin 5AC stains can be used to confirm cases with uncertain diagnoses.1 On immunohistochemical examinations, pyloric gland adenomas express Mucin 6 throughout the lesion and its surface, with variable Mucin 5AC expression. Pyloric gland adenomas do not express intestinal markers such as Mucin 2 and CD10 in their pure form. However, pyloric gland adenomas may express Mucin 2 and CD10 when they are transformed from gastric to intestinal type. Pyloric gland adenomas tend to have a higher Ki-67 index when they have an adenocarcinoma component. It is hard to know the exact incidence or predominant site of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas as these adenomas are very rare. Some case reports have described extragastric pyloric gland adenomas in Barrett’s esophagus,6 heterotrophic gastric mucosa in the rectum,15 duodenum,2 gallbladder,3 and pancreatic duct.4 In Korea, only one case of pyloric gland adenoma in the stomach was reported.16 To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pyloric gland adenoma in the esophagus in Korea.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

Manuscript drafting: K.P. Literature review: S.D.L. Biopsied tissue examination: H.L. Study supervision and manuscript revision: D.H.K., H.Y.J. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Endoscopic findings of the esophageal pyloric gland adenoma. (A) White-light endoscopy showing a 1.2-cm, oval-shaped, flat, elevated lesion with nodularity located 20 cm from the upper incisor teeth. (B) Narrow-band imaging showing the brownish color change in the lesion with a gyrus-forming pattern in the background of normal-appearing esophageal mucosa. (C) Endoscopic ultrasonography showing a homogenous, hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer.
Gut and Liver 2022; 16: 483-486https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl210357

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the pyloric gland adenoma. (A) Conventional white-light endoscopy showing the flat, elevated lesion with nodularity. (B) Chromoendoscopy with iodine staining to demarcate the Lugol-void lesion. (C) Marking around the lesion for endoscopic submucosal dissection. (D) Artificial ulcer after submucosal dissection. (E) Resected specimen with the lesion en bloc. (F) Resected specimen with the lesion on chromoendoscopy with iodine staining.
Gut and Liver 2022; 16: 483-486https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl210357

Fig 3.

Figure 3.Gross and histologic findings. (A) Endoscopically dissected specimen showing a 1.1×0.6×0.2 cm-sized lesion. (B) Pyloric gland adenoma with adjacent esophageal mucosa (H&E, ×40). (C) Closely packed pyloric-type glands lined by cuboidal to low columnar epithelia with eosinophilic cytoplasm (H&E, ×100). (D) The superficial layer is predominantly immunopositive for Mucin 6 (×100). (E) Most glands are immunopositive for Mucin 5AC (×100).
Gut and Liver 2022; 16: 483-486https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl210357

References

  1. Vieth M, Kushima R, Mukaisho K, Sakai R, Kasami T, Hattori T. Immunohistochemical analysis of pyloric gland adenomas using a series of Mucin 2, Mucin 5AC, Mucin 6, CD10, Ki67 and p53. Virchows Arch 2010;457:529-536.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Kushima R, Rüthlein HJ, Stolte M, Bamba M, Hattori T, Borchard F. 'Pyloric gland-type adenoma' arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa of the duodenum, with dysplastic progression of the gastric type. Virchows Arch 1999;435:452-457.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Bakotic BW, Robinson MJ, Sturm PD, Hruban RH, Offerhaus GJ, Albores-Saavedra J. Pyloric gland adenoma of the main pancreatic duct. Am J Surg Pathol 1999;23:227-231.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kushima R, Remmele W, Stolte M, Borchard F. Pyloric gland type adenoma of the gallbladder with squamoid spindle cell metaplasia. Pathol Res Pract 1996;192:963-969.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Vieth M, Kushima R, Borchard F, Stolte M. Pyloric gland adenoma: a clinico-pathological analysis of 90 cases. Virchows Arch 2003;442:317-321.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Kushima R, Vieth M, Mukaisho K, et al. Pyloric gland adenoma arising in Barrett's esophagus with mucin immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic evaluation. Virchows Arch 2005;446:537-541.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Michal M, Curik R, Matler K, Benes Z. Regarding the paper by Vieth et al. Virchows Archiv 442/4:317-321. Virchows Arch 2003;443:589-590.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Chlumská A, Waloschek T, Mukenšnabl P, Martínek P, Kašpírková J, Zámečník M. Pyloric gland adenoma: a histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of 23 cases. Cesk Patol 2015;51:137-143.
    Pubmed
  9. Elster K. Histologic classification of gastric polyps. Curr Top Pathol 1976;63:77-93.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Watanabe H, Jass JR, Sobin LH. Histological typing of oesophageal and gastric tumours. Berlin: Springer, 1990.
    CrossRef
  11. Chen ZM, Scudiere JR, Abraham SC, Montgomery E. Pyloric gland adenoma: an entity distinct from gastric foveolar type adenoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:186-193.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Choi WT, Brown I, Ushiku T, et al. Gastric pyloric gland adenoma: a multicentre clinicopathological study of 67 cases. Histopathology 2018;72:1007-1014.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Min CC, Wu J, Hou F, et al. Gastric pyloric gland adenoma resembling a submucosal tumor: a case report. World J Clin Cases 2020;8:2380-2386.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Togo K, Ueo T, Yonemasu H. Pyloric gland adenoma observed by magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging. Dig Endosc 2014;26:755-756.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Vieth M, Kushima R, de Jonge JP, Borchard F, Oellig F, Stolte M. Adenoma with gastric differentiation (so-called pyloric gland adenoma) in a heterotopic gastric corpus mucosa in the rectum. Virchows Arch 2005;446:542-545.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Ahn JY, Suh SO, Jung JO, et al. A case of pyloric gland adenoma in the cardia of the stomach, treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Korean J Med 2011;80:78-81.
Gut and Liver

Vol.16 No.6
November, 2022

pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

qrcode
qrcode

Share this article on :

  • line

Popular Keywords

Gut and LiverQR code Download
qr-code

Editorial Office