*Department of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
†Division of Hepato-Biliary & Pancreas Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
‡Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the ovary is notably rare. We present a case of HCC metastasis to the ovary with a review of the literature, which includes only 7 reported cases. A 43-year-old hepatitis B virus carrier was admitted with a right ovarian cystic mass. She had been diagnosed with HCC 2 years prior, for which she underwent transarterial chemoembolization followed by right posterior sectionectomy. Eight months after the hepatectomy, the first intrahepatic recurrence was detected and treated with transarterial chemoembolization. An additional intrahepatic recurrence occurred 12 months after transarterial chemoembolization and was managed with left medial sectionectomy and intra-operative radiofrequency ablation. Over the following 3 months, the patient developed elevated alpha-fetoprotein, and positron emission tomography showed a cystic mass in the right side of the pelvic cavity with focal hypermetabolic activity, which suggested a site of recurrent HCC. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a soft, ovoid cystic mass was identified in the right ovary. There was no evidence of metastases in the liver, left ovary, or peritoneum. Because of the absence of tumor on the surface of the ovary and the lack of peritoneal seeding, the mode of metastasis was thought to be hematogenous. Therefore, a right salphingo-oophorectomy was performed. The pathological features showed metastatic HCC with clear resection margins. Although metastasis of HCC to the ovary is very rare, it should be suspected in a female patient with a lower abdominal mass and an elevated serum AFP level in the absence of other demonstrable metastases.