Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl19264 Noninvasive Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Indonesia
Author Information
Muhammad Miftahussurur1,2
1Division of Gastroentero-Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga, and 2Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Muhammad Miftahussurur
Division of Gastroentero-Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Universitas Airlangga, Jalan Mayjend Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 6-8, Surabaya 60131, Indonesia
Tel: +62-31-502-3865, Fax: +62-31-502-3865, E-mail: muhammad-m@fk.unair.ac.id
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is lower than that in other countries, H. pylori is still an essential pathogen associated with severe gastric mucosal damage and dyspeptic symptoms. Invasive diagnostic methods are not ideal due to the lack of endoscopic centers and high costs without full coverage by social insurance. Among the noninvasive methods, the urea breath test is widely available in Indonesia and has been suggested as the primary option to ensure the successful eradication of H. pylori. There has been no local validation for the urea breath test utilizing 13C or 14C. The stool antigen test is inexpensive and suitable for use in active infections before and after eradication; however, customs and habits are obstacles to delivering fresh stool on time. Only polyclonal antibodies and qualitative stool antigen test kits with low sensitivity are available. Serology is a widely validated method and has good accuracy, but it cannot distinguish between active and inactive infections. According to our observations, serology is the main choice of experts and patients, as it is simple, inexpensive and widely known. The urine test is an alternative for reducing costs and endoscopic workload, with high accuracy but low sensitivity. Further studies are necessary to prove the validity of the urine test to be used throughout Indonesia, especially in areas with a low prevalence of H. pylori infection. In conclusion, the validated urea breath test and the stool antigen test are considered noninvasive practical approaches for the detection of H. pylori infection in Indonesia, with serological and urine tests as alternatives.
Keywords: Noninvasive; Helicobacter pylori; Urea breath test; Stool antigen test; Serology
Abstract
Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is lower than that in other countries, H. pylori is still an essential pathogen associated with severe gastric mucosal damage and dyspeptic symptoms. Invasive diagnostic methods are not ideal due to the lack of endoscopic centers and high costs without full coverage by social insurance. Among the noninvasive methods, the urea breath test is widely available in Indonesia and has been suggested as the primary option to ensure the successful eradication of H. pylori. There has been no local validation for the urea breath test utilizing 13C or 14C. The stool antigen test is inexpensive and suitable for use in active infections before and after eradication; however, customs and habits are obstacles to delivering fresh stool on time. Only polyclonal antibodies and qualitative stool antigen test kits with low sensitivity are available. Serology is a widely validated method and has good accuracy, but it cannot distinguish between active and inactive infections. According to our observations, serology is the main choice of experts and patients, as it is simple, inexpensive and widely known. The urine test is an alternative for reducing costs and endoscopic workload, with high accuracy but low sensitivity. Further studies are necessary to prove the validity of the urine test to be used throughout Indonesia, especially in areas with a low prevalence of H. pylori infection. In conclusion, the validated urea breath test and the stool antigen test are considered noninvasive practical approaches for the detection of H. pylori infection in Indonesia, with serological and urine tests as alternatives.
Keywords: Noninvasive; Helicobacter pylori; Urea breath test; Stool antigen test; Serology
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