Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl19091 Role of Serum Pepsinogen II and Helicobacter pylori Status in the Detection of Diffuse-Type Early Gastric Cancer in Young Individuals in South Korea
Author Information
Sung Min Baek1 , Nayoung Kim1,2,3 , Young Jae Kwon1 , Hye Seung Lee4 , Hyun Young Kim1 , Jaebong Lee5 , Hyuk Yoon1 , Cheol Min Shin1 , Young Soo Park1 , and Dong Ho Lee1,2,3
1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, 2Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University, 3Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, 4Department of Pathology, and 5Division of Statistics in Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea

Nayoung Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 82 Gumi-ro 173beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 13620, Korea
Tel: +82-31-787-7008, Fax: +82-31-787-4051, E-mail: nayoungkim49@empas.com
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Background/Aims: The utility of serum pepsinogen (sPG) I and the sPGI/II ratio as biomarkers for screening individuals with gastric cancer (GC) has not been established in Korea. The aim of this study was to define the role of sPG, especially sPGII, in GC screening. Methods: This study enrolled 2,940 subjects, including patients with GC (n=1,124) or gastric dysplasia (n=353) and controls (n=1,463). Tests to determine sPG levels and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status were performed. Area under the curve and receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to identify the optimal cutoff values for sPG. The usefulness of sPG levels for the detection of GC and gastric dysplasia was validated by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The sPGI/II ratio was associated with the risk of gastric dysplasia and advanced-stage intestinal-type GC (IGC). In contrast, sPGII was associated with the risk of early-stage diffuse-type GC (DGC). Significantly higher risk was indicated by an sPGI/II ratio <3 for gastric dysplasia and advanced-stage IGC and by sPGII levels ≥20 µg/L for early-stage DGC. Positive HP status showed a stronger association with DGC than with IGC. When sPGII level and HP status were combined, the prevalence of DGC was higher in the ≥20 µg/L sPGII and HP-positive group. Age younger than 40 years was strongly related to early-stage DGC, especially in females (odds ratio, 21.00; p=0.006). Conclusions: sPGII ≥20 ng/mL and positive HP status suggest a risk of early-stage DGC, particularly in young adult females in South Korea.
Keywords: Pepsinogen; Stomach neoplasms; Diffuse type; Helicobacter pylori
Abstract
Background/Aims: The utility of serum pepsinogen (sPG) I and the sPGI/II ratio as biomarkers for screening individuals with gastric cancer (GC) has not been established in Korea. The aim of this study was to define the role of sPG, especially sPGII, in GC screening. Methods: This study enrolled 2,940 subjects, including patients with GC (n=1,124) or gastric dysplasia (n=353) and controls (n=1,463). Tests to determine sPG levels and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status were performed. Area under the curve and receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to identify the optimal cutoff values for sPG. The usefulness of sPG levels for the detection of GC and gastric dysplasia was validated by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The sPGI/II ratio was associated with the risk of gastric dysplasia and advanced-stage intestinal-type GC (IGC). In contrast, sPGII was associated with the risk of early-stage diffuse-type GC (DGC). Significantly higher risk was indicated by an sPGI/II ratio <3 for gastric dysplasia and advanced-stage IGC and by sPGII levels ≥20 µg/L for early-stage DGC. Positive HP status showed a stronger association with DGC than with IGC. When sPGII level and HP status were combined, the prevalence of DGC was higher in the ≥20 µg/L sPGII and HP-positive group. Age younger than 40 years was strongly related to early-stage DGC, especially in females (odds ratio, 21.00; p=0.006). Conclusions: sPGII ≥20 ng/mL and positive HP status suggest a risk of early-stage DGC, particularly in young adult females in South Korea.
Keywords: Pepsinogen; Stomach neoplasms; Diffuse type; Helicobacter pylori
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