Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl19181 Diagnosis and Management of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Current Status and Future Directions
Author Information
Robert J. Huang1 , Alyssa Y. Choi2 , Camtu D. Truong3, Matthew M. Yeh3, and Joo Ha Hwang1
1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and Departments of 2Medicine and 3Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Joo Ha Hwang
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr. H0268, MC:5244, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Tel: +1-650-497-6313, Fax: +1-650-498-6323, E-mail: jooha@stanford.edu
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a known premalignant condition of the human stomach along the pathway to gastric cancer (GC). Histologically, GIM represents the replacement of normal gastric mucosa by mucin-secreting intestinal mucosa. Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common etiologic agent of GIM development worldwide. The prevalence of GIM is heterogeneous among different regions of the world and correlates with the population endemicity of H. pylori carriage, among other environmental factors. GC remains the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally. GIM is usually diagnosed by upper endoscopy with biopsy, and histologic scoring systems have been developed to risk-stratify patients at highest risk for progression to GC. Several recent endoscopic imaging modalities may improve the optical detection of GIM and early GC. Appropriate surveillance of GIM may be cost effective and represents an opportunity for the early diagnosis and therapy of GC. Certain East Asian nations have established population-level programs for the screening and surveillance of GIM; guidelines regarding GIM surveillance have also recently been published in Europe. By contrast, few data exist regarding the appropriateness of surveillance of GIM in the United States. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of GIM with an emphasis on the role of appropriate endoscopic surveillance.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Epidemiology; Stomach
Abstract
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a known premalignant condition of the human stomach along the pathway to gastric cancer (GC). Histologically, GIM represents the replacement of normal gastric mucosa by mucin-secreting intestinal mucosa. Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common etiologic agent of GIM development worldwide. The prevalence of GIM is heterogeneous among different regions of the world and correlates with the population endemicity of H. pylori carriage, among other environmental factors. GC remains the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally. GIM is usually diagnosed by upper endoscopy with biopsy, and histologic scoring systems have been developed to risk-stratify patients at highest risk for progression to GC. Several recent endoscopic imaging modalities may improve the optical detection of GIM and early GC. Appropriate surveillance of GIM may be cost effective and represents an opportunity for the early diagnosis and therapy of GC. Certain East Asian nations have established population-level programs for the screening and surveillance of GIM; guidelines regarding GIM surveillance have also recently been published in Europe. By contrast, few data exist regarding the appropriateness of surveillance of GIM in the United States. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of GIM with an emphasis on the role of appropriate endoscopic surveillance.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Epidemiology; Stomach
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