Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl19069 Extrahepatic Manifestations of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Author Information
Andrew A. Li1, Aijaz Ahmed2, and Donghee Kim2
1Department of Medicine, and 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Donghee Kim (https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1919-6800)
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94304, USA
Tel: +1-650-497-9261, Fax: +1-650-498-5692, E-mail: dhkimmd@stanford.edu
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and encompasses a spectrum of pathology from simple steatosis to inflammation and significant fibrosis that leads to cirrhosis. NAFLD and its comorbid conditions extend well beyond the liver. It is a multisystemic clinical disease entity with extrahepatic manifestations such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and psoriasis. Indeed, the most common causes of mortality in subjects with NAFLD are cardiovascular disease, followed by malignancies and then liver-related complications as a distant third. This review focuses on several of the key extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD and areas for future investigation. Clinicians should learn to screen and initiate treatment for these extrahepatic manifestations in a prompt and timely fashion before they progress to end-organ damage.
Keywords: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; Cardiovascular disease; Metabolic syndrome
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and encompasses a spectrum of pathology from simple steatosis to inflammation and significant fibrosis that leads to cirrhosis. NAFLD and its comorbid conditions extend well beyond the liver. It is a multisystemic clinical disease entity with extrahepatic manifestations such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and psoriasis. Indeed, the most common causes of mortality in subjects with NAFLD are cardiovascular disease, followed by malignancies and then liver-related complications as a distant third. This review focuses on several of the key extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD and areas for future investigation. Clinicians should learn to screen and initiate treatment for these extrahepatic manifestations in a prompt and timely fashion before they progress to end-organ damage.
Keywords: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; Cardiovascular disease; Metabolic syndrome
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