Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl19047 Robot-Assisted Endoscopic Resection: Current Status and Future Directions
Author Information
Hung Leng Kaan1 and Khek Yu Ho2
1Department of General Surgery, National University Hospital, and 2Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Khek Yu Ho
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 11, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Tel: +65-6772-4362, Fax: +65-6779-4112, E-mail: mdchoky@nus.edu.sg
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Therapeutic endoscopic resection has gained favor for its ability to achieve high en bloc and histologically complete resection rates via a minimally invasive approach. The main technical difficulties faced by interventionists are first the lack of traction causing suboptimal visualization of the dissection field and second, the lack of triangulation using existing therapeutic apparatuses. These challenges can be overcome with the use of robots and the multiple degrees of freedom afforded by the robotic wrists. Nevertheless, complications such as bleeding and perforation can occur. It is hence beneficial for the robotic device to be equipped with additional abilities such as suturing. Once the robotic prototypes have been fully optimized and marketed, a structured program should be instituted to ensure proper and adequate training of the end-users. The future of robotics should then explore the possibility of developing a soft robot or a robot with more natural human-like movements. A robot with a force feedback mechanism would be superior and improve safety. Eventually, a supervised autonomous robot may perform interventions with greater precision and accuracy than an expert procedurist. This review describes the benefits of robot-assisted endoscopic resections, recent developments aimed at managing iatrogenic complications and future directions for robotic endoscopy.
Keywords: Robotics; Endoscopy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
Abstract
Therapeutic endoscopic resection has gained favor for its ability to achieve high en bloc and histologically complete resection rates via a minimally invasive approach. The main technical difficulties faced by interventionists are first the lack of traction causing suboptimal visualization of the dissection field and second, the lack of triangulation using existing therapeutic apparatuses. These challenges can be overcome with the use of robots and the multiple degrees of freedom afforded by the robotic wrists. Nevertheless, complications such as bleeding and perforation can occur. It is hence beneficial for the robotic device to be equipped with additional abilities such as suturing. Once the robotic prototypes have been fully optimized and marketed, a structured program should be instituted to ensure proper and adequate training of the end-users. The future of robotics should then explore the possibility of developing a soft robot or a robot with more natural human-like movements. A robot with a force feedback mechanism would be superior and improve safety. Eventually, a supervised autonomous robot may perform interventions with greater precision and accuracy than an expert procedurist. This review describes the benefits of robot-assisted endoscopic resections, recent developments aimed at managing iatrogenic complications and future directions for robotic endoscopy.
Keywords: Robotics; Endoscopy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
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