Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl18490 Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, Robert's Stomach Cytoprotection/Adaptive Cytoprotection/Organoprotection, and Selye's Stress Coping Response: Progress, Achievements, and the Future
Author Information
Predrag Sikiric1 , Ki-Baik Hahm2, Alenka Boban Blagaic1, Ante Tvrdeic1, Katarina Horvat Pavlov3, Andrea Petrovic3, Antonio Kokot1, Slaven Gojkovic1, Ivan Krezic1, Domagoj Drmic1, Rudolf Rucman1, and Sven Seiwerth3
1Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Digestive Disease Center, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea; and 3Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Predrag Sikiric
Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, University of Zagreb, Salata 11, POB 916, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
Tel: +385-1-4566-833, Fax: +385-1-4811-244, E-mail: sikiric@mef.hr
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
We reviewed again the significance of the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as a likely mediator of Robert's stomach cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection and organoprotection and as novel mediator of Selye's stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Specific points of BPC 157 therapy and the original concept of Robert's cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection/organoprotection are discussed, including the beneficial effects of BPC 157. First, BPC 157 protects stomach cells and maintains gastric integrity against various noxious agents (Robert's killing cell by contact) and is continuously present in the gastric mucosa and gastric juice. Additionally, BPC 157 protects against the adverse effects of alcohol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastric epithelium and other epithelia, that is, skin, liver, pancreas, heart (organoprotection), and brain, thereby suggesting its use in wound healing. Additionally, BPC 157 counteracts gastric endothelial injury that precedes and induces damage to the gastric epithelium and generalizes “gastric endothelial protection” to protection of the endothelium of other vessels (thrombosis, prolonged bleeding, and thrombocytopenia). BPC 157 also has an effect on blood vessels, resulting in vessel recruitment that circumvents vessel occlusion and the development of additional shunting and rapid bypass loops to rapidly reestablish the integrity of blood flow (ischemic/reperfusion colitis, duodenal lesions, cecal perforation, and inferior vena caval occlusion). Lastly, BPC 157 counteracts tumor cachexia, muscle wasting, and increases in pro-inflammatory/procachectic cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and significantly corrects deranged muscle proliferation and myogenesis through changes in the expression of FoxO3a, p-AKT, p-mTOR, and P-GSK-3β (mitigating cancer cachexia).
Keywords: Stsblr gsstric petnadecapeptide BPC 157 therapy; Robert's cytoprotection; Adaptive cytoprotection; Organoprotection concept; Mediator
Abstract
We reviewed again the significance of the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as a likely mediator of Robert's stomach cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection and organoprotection and as novel mediator of Selye's stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Specific points of BPC 157 therapy and the original concept of Robert's cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection/organoprotection are discussed, including the beneficial effects of BPC 157. First, BPC 157 protects stomach cells and maintains gastric integrity against various noxious agents (Robert's killing cell by contact) and is continuously present in the gastric mucosa and gastric juice. Additionally, BPC 157 protects against the adverse effects of alcohol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastric epithelium and other epithelia, that is, skin, liver, pancreas, heart (organoprotection), and brain, thereby suggesting its use in wound healing. Additionally, BPC 157 counteracts gastric endothelial injury that precedes and induces damage to the gastric epithelium and generalizes “gastric endothelial protection” to protection of the endothelium of other vessels (thrombosis, prolonged bleeding, and thrombocytopenia). BPC 157 also has an effect on blood vessels, resulting in vessel recruitment that circumvents vessel occlusion and the development of additional shunting and rapid bypass loops to rapidly reestablish the integrity of blood flow (ischemic/reperfusion colitis, duodenal lesions, cecal perforation, and inferior vena caval occlusion). Lastly, BPC 157 counteracts tumor cachexia, muscle wasting, and increases in pro-inflammatory/procachectic cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and significantly corrects deranged muscle proliferation and myogenesis through changes in the expression of FoxO3a, p-AKT, p-mTOR, and P-GSK-3β (mitigating cancer cachexia).
Keywords: Stsblr gsstric petnadecapeptide BPC 157 therapy; Robert's cytoprotection; Adaptive cytoprotection; Organoprotection concept; Mediator
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