Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl18486 Cell Death and Liver Disease
Author Information
Satoka Aizawa1, Gurmehr Brar1, and Hidekazu Tsukamoto1,2
1Southern California Research Center for ALPD and Cirrhosis and Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, and 2Department of Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Southern California Research Center for ALPD and Cirrhosis, Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1333 San Pablo St. MMR 402, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Tel: +1-323-442-5107, Fax: +1-323-442-3126, E-mail: htsukamo@med.usc.edu
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Cell death is now reclassified into several types based on the mechanisms and morphologic phenotype. Understanding of such classifications offers insights into the pathogenesis of liver disease, as well as diagnostic or therapeutic implications. Apoptosis is recognized relatively easily due to its unique morphology, but lytic cell death may occur in the form of accidental necrosis, mitochondria permeability transition-driven necrosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and parthanatos. The cell may be engulfed by neighboring cells due to a loss of integrin signaling or cancer cell competition by entosis, a type of cell death. The classification also includes mechanistically termed cell death such as autophagy-dependent cell death and lysosome-dependent cell death. These different types of cell death may occur uniquely in certain liver diseases but may coexist in the evolution of the disease. They occur in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells, as well as inflammatory cells, causing distinct pathologic consequences. This review briefly covers the recently revised classifications of cell death and discusses their relevance to liver diseases of different etiologies.
Keywords: Pyroptosis; Necroptosis; Apoptosis; Ferroptosis; Mitochondria permeability transition-driven necrosis
Abstract
Cell death is now reclassified into several types based on the mechanisms and morphologic phenotype. Understanding of such classifications offers insights into the pathogenesis of liver disease, as well as diagnostic or therapeutic implications. Apoptosis is recognized relatively easily due to its unique morphology, but lytic cell death may occur in the form of accidental necrosis, mitochondria permeability transition-driven necrosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and parthanatos. The cell may be engulfed by neighboring cells due to a loss of integrin signaling or cancer cell competition by entosis, a type of cell death. The classification also includes mechanistically termed cell death such as autophagy-dependent cell death and lysosome-dependent cell death. These different types of cell death may occur uniquely in certain liver diseases but may coexist in the evolution of the disease. They occur in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells, as well as inflammatory cells, causing distinct pathologic consequences. This review briefly covers the recently revised classifications of cell death and discusses their relevance to liver diseases of different etiologies.
Keywords: Pyroptosis; Necroptosis; Apoptosis; Ferroptosis; Mitochondria permeability transition-driven necrosis
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