Gut and Liver Multicenter Retrospective Risk Assessment of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding in Patients with Cirrhosis: An Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography-Based Prediction Model
Author Information
Ja Yoon Heo1, Beom Kyung Kim1,2, Jun Yong Park1,2, Do Young Kim1,2, Sang Hoon Ahn1,2, Won Young Tak3, Young Oh Kweon3, Kwang-Hyub Han1,2, Soo Young Park3, and Seung Up Kim1,2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Yonsei Liver Center, Severance Hospital, Seoul, and 3Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea

Soo Young Parka and Seung Up Kimb
aDepartment of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 130 Dongdeok-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 41944, Korea
Tel: +82-53-200-5516, Fax: +82-53-426-8773, E-mail: psyoung0419@gmail.com
bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-1982, Fax: +82-2-362-6884, E-mail: ksukorea@yuhs.ac
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Background/Aims: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography predicts the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). We investigated whether an ARFI-based prediction model can assess EV bleeding (EVB) risk in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: The records of 262 patients with cirrhosis who underwent ARFI elastography and endoscopic surveillance at two institutions in 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed, and ARFI–spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio scores (ASPS) were calculated. Results: The median patient age (165 men, 97 women) was 56 years. The median ARFI velocity, spleen diameter, platelet count, and ASPS were 1.7 m/s, 10.1 cm, 145×109/L, and 1.16, respectively. During the median 38-month follow-up, 61 patients experienced EVB. Among all patients (179 without EVs and 83 with EVs), the cutoff value that maximized the sum of the sensitivity (73.1%) and specificity (78.4%) (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.824) for predicting EVB was 2.60. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with ASPS ≥2.60 than in those with ASPS <2.60 (p<0.001). Among patients with EVs (n=83), 49 had high-risk EVs (HEVs), and 22 had EVB. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in HEV patients than in low-risk EV patients (p=0.037). At an ASPS of 4.50 (sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 70.6%; AUROC, 0.691), the cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with a high ASPS than in those with a low ASPS (p=0.045). A higher ASPS independently predicted EVB (hazard ratio, 4.072; p=0.047). Conclusions: ASPS can assess EVB risk in patients with cirrhosis. Prophylactic management should be considered for patients with HEVs and ASPS ≥4.50.
Keywords: Acoustic radiation force impulse; Esophageal Varix; Liver Cirrhosis
Abstract
Background/Aims: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography predicts the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). We investigated whether an ARFI-based prediction model can assess EV bleeding (EVB) risk in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: The records of 262 patients with cirrhosis who underwent ARFI elastography and endoscopic surveillance at two institutions in 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed, and ARFI–spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio scores (ASPS) were calculated. Results: The median patient age (165 men, 97 women) was 56 years. The median ARFI velocity, spleen diameter, platelet count, and ASPS were 1.7 m/s, 10.1 cm, 145×109/L, and 1.16, respectively. During the median 38-month follow-up, 61 patients experienced EVB. Among all patients (179 without EVs and 83 with EVs), the cutoff value that maximized the sum of the sensitivity (73.1%) and specificity (78.4%) (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.824) for predicting EVB was 2.60. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with ASPS ≥2.60 than in those with ASPS <2.60 (p<0.001). Among patients with EVs (n=83), 49 had high-risk EVs (HEVs), and 22 had EVB. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in HEV patients than in low-risk EV patients (p=0.037). At an ASPS of 4.50 (sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 70.6%; AUROC, 0.691), the cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with a high ASPS than in those with a low ASPS (p=0.045). A higher ASPS independently predicted EVB (hazard ratio, 4.072; p=0.047). Conclusions: ASPS can assess EVB risk in patients with cirrhosis. Prophylactic management should be considered for patients with HEVs and ASPS ≥4.50.
Keywords: Acoustic radiation force impulse; Esophageal Varix; Liver Cirrhosis
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