Gut and Liver Predicting Malignancy Risk in Gastrointestinal Subepithelial Tumors with Contrast-Enhanced Harmonic Endoscopic Ultrasonography Using Perfusion Analysis Software
Author Information
Hyun Seok Lee, Chang Min Cho, Yong Hwan Kwon, and Su Youn Nam
Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea

Chang Min Cho
Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 807 Hoguk-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41404, Korea
Tel: +82-53-200-2608, Fax: +82-53-200-2027, E-mail: cmcho@knu.ac.kr
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Background/Aims: Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CEH-EUS) is a promising imaging modality that can differentiate subepithelial tumors (SETs) by detecting the degree of enhancement. However, whether CEH-EUS alone can predict the malignancy risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of CEH-EUS by using perfusion analysis software for distinguishing among SETs and predicting the malignancy risk of GISTs. Methods: We retrospectively included patients with SETs who underwent preoperative CEH-EUS. In this study, 44 patients with histologically proven GISTs and benign SETs were enrolled. Perfusion analysis was performed using perfusion quantification software. Peak enhancement (PE), wash-in rate (WiR), wash-in perfusion index (WiPI), and wash-in and wash-out areas under the time-intensity curve (WiWoAUC) were calculated and compared between the GISTs and benign SETs. Results: When we allocated the enrolled patients into the leiomyoma group and low- and high-grade malignancy GIST groups, significant statistical differences in PE (p<0.001), WiR (p=0.009), WiPI (p<0.001), and WiWoAUC (p<0.001) were identified in the high-grade malignancy group compared with the leiomyoma group. Conclusions: CEH-EUS with perfusion analysis using perfusion analysis software could be a quantitative and independent method for predicting malignancy risk in gastrointestinal SETs.
Keywords: Endosonography; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Contrast agent; Perfusion
Abstract
Background/Aims: Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CEH-EUS) is a promising imaging modality that can differentiate subepithelial tumors (SETs) by detecting the degree of enhancement. However, whether CEH-EUS alone can predict the malignancy risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of CEH-EUS by using perfusion analysis software for distinguishing among SETs and predicting the malignancy risk of GISTs. Methods: We retrospectively included patients with SETs who underwent preoperative CEH-EUS. In this study, 44 patients with histologically proven GISTs and benign SETs were enrolled. Perfusion analysis was performed using perfusion quantification software. Peak enhancement (PE), wash-in rate (WiR), wash-in perfusion index (WiPI), and wash-in and wash-out areas under the time-intensity curve (WiWoAUC) were calculated and compared between the GISTs and benign SETs. Results: When we allocated the enrolled patients into the leiomyoma group and low- and high-grade malignancy GIST groups, significant statistical differences in PE (p<0.001), WiR (p=0.009), WiPI (p<0.001), and WiWoAUC (p<0.001) were identified in the high-grade malignancy group compared with the leiomyoma group. Conclusions: CEH-EUS with perfusion analysis using perfusion analysis software could be a quantitative and independent method for predicting malignancy risk in gastrointestinal SETs.
Keywords: Endosonography; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Contrast agent; Perfusion
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