Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl19197 The Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) Yield a More Accurate Prognoses Than the RECIST 1.1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transarterial Radioembolization
Author Information
Jae Seung Lee1,2 , Hong Jun Choi1,2 , Beom Kyung Kim1,2,3 , Jun Yong Park1,2,3 , Do Young Kim1,2,3 , Sang Hoon Ahn1,2,3 , Kwang-Hyub Han1,2,3 , Song-Ee Baek2,4 , Yong Eun Chung3,4 , Mi-Suk Park2,4 , Myeong-Jin Kim2,4 , Hyungjin Rhee2,4 , and Seung Up Kim1,2,3
1Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Yonsei Liver Center, Severance Hospital, 3Institute of Gastroenterology and 4Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Seung Up Kima and Hyungjin Rheeb
aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-1930, Fax: +82-2-393-6884, E-mail: ksukorea@yuhs.ac
bDepartment of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-7408, Fax: +82-2-2227-8337, E-mail: hjinrhee@yuhs.ac
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Background/Aims: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria have been used to assess treatment responses for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We investigated which criteria provides better survival predictions in HCC patients treated with transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Methods: In total, 102 patients with unresectable intrahepatic HCC, who were treated with TARE between 2012 and 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. The treatment response after TARE was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months by the mRECIST and RECIST 1.1. Responders were defined as patients with complete or partial responses by each criterion. Results: The median age of 83 men and 19 women was 64.3 years. The median alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin levels were 37.1 ng/mL and 1,780.0 mAU/mL, respectively. The median maximal tumor size was 8.3 cm, and multiple tumors were observed in 36 patients (35.3%). During the follow-up period (median, 20.7 months), 21 patients (20.6%) died, with a mean survival time of 55.5 months. The cumulative survival rate was 96.1% at 6 months and 89.3% at 12 months. Responders, defined by the mRECIST at 1, 3, and 6 months after TARE, showed better survival outcomes than nonresponders (hazard ratio [HR]=5.736, p=0.008 at 1 month; HR=3.145, p=0.022 at 3 months, and HR=2.887, p=0.061 at 6 months). The survival rates of responders and nonresponders defined by the RECIST 1.1 were similar (all p>0.05). Conclusions: Response evaluations that use the mRECIST provide more accurate prognoses than those that use the RECIST 1.1 in HCC patients treated with TARE.
Keywords: Carcinoma, hepatocellular; Treatment outcome; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors; Embolization, therapeutics; Radiotherapy
Abstract
Background/Aims: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria have been used to assess treatment responses for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We investigated which criteria provides better survival predictions in HCC patients treated with transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Methods: In total, 102 patients with unresectable intrahepatic HCC, who were treated with TARE between 2012 and 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. The treatment response after TARE was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months by the mRECIST and RECIST 1.1. Responders were defined as patients with complete or partial responses by each criterion. Results: The median age of 83 men and 19 women was 64.3 years. The median alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin levels were 37.1 ng/mL and 1,780.0 mAU/mL, respectively. The median maximal tumor size was 8.3 cm, and multiple tumors were observed in 36 patients (35.3%). During the follow-up period (median, 20.7 months), 21 patients (20.6%) died, with a mean survival time of 55.5 months. The cumulative survival rate was 96.1% at 6 months and 89.3% at 12 months. Responders, defined by the mRECIST at 1, 3, and 6 months after TARE, showed better survival outcomes than nonresponders (hazard ratio [HR]=5.736, p=0.008 at 1 month; HR=3.145, p=0.022 at 3 months, and HR=2.887, p=0.061 at 6 months). The survival rates of responders and nonresponders defined by the RECIST 1.1 were similar (all p>0.05). Conclusions: Response evaluations that use the mRECIST provide more accurate prognoses than those that use the RECIST 1.1 in HCC patients treated with TARE.
Keywords: Carcinoma, hepatocellular; Treatment outcome; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors; Embolization, therapeutics; Radiotherapy
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