Gut and Liver https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl18567 How Does Ultrasound Manage Pancreatic Diseases? Ultrasound Findings and Scanning Maneuvers
Author Information
Shinji Okaniwa
Department of Gastroenterology, Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida, Japan

Shinji Okaniwa (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6718-6901)
Department of Gastroenterology, Iida Municipal Hospital, 438 Yawata-machi, Iida 395-8502, Japan
Tel: +81-265-21-1255, Fax: +81-265-21-1266, E-mail: okaniwa@cocoa.ocn.ne.jp
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
As ultrasound (US) is simple and less invasive than other imaging modalities, this technique is widely used for mass screening. However, visualizing the entire pancreas due to complicated anatomy, obesity and overlying gas can be difficult. US plays a key role in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma (PC), of which tumors smaller than 10 mm (TS1a) and pancreatic carcinoma in situ (PCIS) are expected to have good prognosis. To detect these forms of PC, main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilatation (3 mm or more) and pancreatic cysts (5 mm or larger) are US findings of high-risk individuals (HRIs), and these subjects should be observed periodically. Scanning maneuvers are also important for both screening for PC and follow-up of HRIs. As lesions in the groove area and ventral pancreas do not affect the MPD or extrahepatic bile duct, we should pay attention to these areas. Visualization of the tail is also challenging due to gas and stool in the alimentary tract. As the position of the pancreas changes depending on the body posture, and several different body positions should be employed, such as the right lateral decubitus, sitting, and upright positions, rather than only applying strong compression with the transducer. In cases with poor visualization, the liquid-filled stomach method is highly recommended.
Keywords: Ultrasound; Pancreatic carcinoma; Risk factors; Pitfalls; Mass screening
Abstract
As ultrasound (US) is simple and less invasive than other imaging modalities, this technique is widely used for mass screening. However, visualizing the entire pancreas due to complicated anatomy, obesity and overlying gas can be difficult. US plays a key role in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma (PC), of which tumors smaller than 10 mm (TS1a) and pancreatic carcinoma in situ (PCIS) are expected to have good prognosis. To detect these forms of PC, main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilatation (3 mm or more) and pancreatic cysts (5 mm or larger) are US findings of high-risk individuals (HRIs), and these subjects should be observed periodically. Scanning maneuvers are also important for both screening for PC and follow-up of HRIs. As lesions in the groove area and ventral pancreas do not affect the MPD or extrahepatic bile duct, we should pay attention to these areas. Visualization of the tail is also challenging due to gas and stool in the alimentary tract. As the position of the pancreas changes depending on the body posture, and several different body positions should be employed, such as the right lateral decubitus, sitting, and upright positions, rather than only applying strong compression with the transducer. In cases with poor visualization, the liquid-filled stomach method is highly recommended.
Keywords: Ultrasound; Pancreatic carcinoma; Risk factors; Pitfalls; Mass screening
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