Gut and Liver Immunotherapy for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Author Information
Antonio Bertoletti1,2 and Nina Le Bert1,2
1Emerging Infectious Diseases Program, Duke-NUS Medical School and 2Viral Hepatitis Laboratory, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore

Antonio Bertoletti
Emerging Infectious Diseases Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857
Tel: +65-6601-3574, Fax: +65-6221-2529, E-mail: antonio@duke-nus.edu.sg
© The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer. All rights reserved.

Abstract
While new therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus infection have delivered remarkable cure rates, curative therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remain a distant goal. Although current direct antiviral therapies are very efficient in controlling viral replication and limiting the progression to cirrhosis, these treatments require lifelong administration due to the frequent viral rebound upon treatment cessation, and immune modulation with interferon is only effective in a subgroup of patients. Specific immunotherapies can offer the possibility of eliminating or at least stably maintaining low levels of HBV replication under the control of a functional host antiviral response. Here, we review the development of immune cell therapy for HBV, highlighting the potential antiviral efficiency and potential toxicities in different groups of chronically infected HBV patients. We also discuss the chronic hepatitis B patient populations that best benefit from therapeutic immune interventions.
Keywords: Vaccines; Hepatitis B, chronic; Therapeutics; Hepatitis B virus
Abstract
While new therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus infection have delivered remarkable cure rates, curative therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remain a distant goal. Although current direct antiviral therapies are very efficient in controlling viral replication and limiting the progression to cirrhosis, these treatments require lifelong administration due to the frequent viral rebound upon treatment cessation, and immune modulation with interferon is only effective in a subgroup of patients. Specific immunotherapies can offer the possibility of eliminating or at least stably maintaining low levels of HBV replication under the control of a functional host antiviral response. Here, we review the development of immune cell therapy for HBV, highlighting the potential antiviral efficiency and potential toxicities in different groups of chronically infected HBV patients. We also discuss the chronic hepatitis B patient populations that best benefit from therapeutic immune interventions.
Keywords: Vaccines; Hepatitis B, chronic; Therapeutics; Hepatitis B virus
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