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Fig. 2. Interactions between reactive cholangiocytes and other liver cells in cholangiopathies. Reactive cholangiocytes interact with mesenchymal cells (e.g., HSCs, portal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibrocytes), endothelial cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes by exchanging paracrine or autocrine signals.

CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; Wnt, wingless; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; HSC, hepatic stellate cell; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; Hh, Hedgehog; Ang, angiopoietin; ET, endothelin; NO, nitric oxide; SDF-1, stromal cell-derived factor 1; BM, basement membrane; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrotic factor; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; ECM, extracellular matrix; EMT, epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Gut Liver 2012;6:295~304 https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl.2012.6.3.295
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