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Gut and Liver

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Articles

Evolutionary History of the Helicobacter pylori Genome: Implications for Gastric Carcinogenesis

Pelayo Correa and M. Blanca Piazuelo
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ABSTRACT
The genome of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori has evolved over the millennia since its migration out of Africa along with its human host approximately 60,000 years ago. Human migrations, after thousands of years of permanent settlement in those lands, resulted in seven prototypes of genetic populations of H. pylori with distinct geographical distributions. In all continents, present day isolates of H. pylori have molecular markers that refl ect population migrations. The colonization of the Americas as well as the slave trade introduced European and African strains to the New World. The relationship between H. pylori genome and gastric cancer rates is linked to the presence of the cagA gene, but the knowledge on this subject is incomplete because other genes may be involved in certain populations. A new situation for Homo sapiens is the absence of H. pylori colonization in certain, mostly affluent, populations, apparently brought about by improved home sanitation and widespread use of antibiotics during the last decades. The disappearance of H. pylori from the human microbiota may be linked to emerging epidemics of esophageal adenocarcinoma, some allergic diseases such as asthma and some autoimmune disorders. (Gut Liver 2012;6:21-28)
 
KEYWORD
Helicobacter pylori; Genome; Gastric carcinogenesis
 
Gut and Liver 2012 Jan; 6(1): 21-28
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