pISSN 1976-2283
eISSN 2005-1212

Cited by CrossRef (91)

  1. Kjetil Garborg. Anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota as first-line treatment forClostridium difficileinfection. Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease 2015;26
    https://doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v26.27710
  2. . UEG Week 2016 Poster Presentations. United European Gastroenterology Journal 2016;4:A157
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2050640616663689
  3. Safrun Mahmood, Rakesh Kochhar, Chetana Vaishnavi, Meenakshi Singh. Prevalence and molecular types of Clostridium difficile isolates from faecal specimens of patients in a tertiary care centre. 2015;64:1297
    https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000169
  4. Eric Bordeleau, Vincent Burrus. Cyclic-di-GMP signaling in the Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium difficile. Curr Genet 2015;61:497
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294-015-0484-z
  5. A. McLure, A.C.A. Clements, M. Kirk, K. Glass. Clostridium difficile classification overestimates hospital-acquired infections. Journal of Hospital Infection 2018;99:453
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2017.12.014
  6. D. N. Gerding, D. W. Hecht, T. Louie, C. E. Nord, G. H. Talbot, O. A. Cornely, M. Buitrago, E. Best, S. Sambol, J. R. Osmolski, H. Kracker, H. H. Locher, P. Charef, M. Wilcox. Susceptibility ofClostridium difficileisolates from a Phase 2 clinical trial of cadazolid and vancomycin inC. difficileinfection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2016;71:213
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkv300
  7. Katsunori Yanagihara, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Norihito Kaku, Kiyomitsu Katsumata, Kosuke Kosai. Susceptibility of Clostridium species isolated in Japan to fidaxomicin and its major metabolite OP-1118. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 2018;24:492
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2017.12.006
  8. S. Gemein, J. Gebel, B. Christiansen, H. Martiny, L. Vossebein, F.H.H. Brill, M. Decius, M. Eggers, T. Koburger-Janssen, M. Meckel, S. Werner, B. Hunsinger, T. Selhorst, G. Kampf, M. Exner. Interlaboratory reproducibility of a test method following 4-field test methodology to evaluate the susceptibility of Clostridium difficile spores. Journal of Hospital Infection 2019;103:78
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2019.04.011
  9. James L. A. Webb, Jr. The Guts of the Matter. 2019.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108642323
  10. Deyan Luo, Xuechao Liu, Li Xing, Yakun Sun, Jie Huang, Liangyan Zhang, Jiajia Li, Hui Wang. Immunogenicity and Protection from Receptor-Binding Domains of Toxins as Potential Vaccine Candidates for Clostridium difficile. Vaccines 2019;7:180
    https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7040180
  11. Víctor Pérez-Luna, Orfil González-Reynoso. Encapsulation of Biological Agents in Hydrogels for Therapeutic Applications. Gels 2018;4:61
    https://doi.org/10.3390/gels4030061
  12. H.B. Ghoddusi, L.V. Thomas. Probiotic Dairy Products. 2018.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119214137.ch1
  13. Elena A. Usacheva, Jian-P. Jin, Lance R. Peterson. Host response to Clostridium difficile infection: Diagnostics and detection. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance 2016;7:93
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2016.08.002
  14. Amelia K. Sofjan, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Kakali Halder, Nayel D. Kabir, Ahmed Abu Saleh, Julie Miranda, Chris Lancaster, Khurshida Begum, M. Jahangir Alam, Kevin W. Garey. Molecular epidemiology of toxigenic Clostridioides difficile isolates from hospitalized patients and the hospital environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anaerobe 2019:102081
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.102081
  15. Husnu Sahan Guran, Osman Irfan Ilhak. Clostridium difficile in retail chicken meat parts and liver in the Eastern Region of Turkey. J. Verbr. Lebensm. 2015;10:359
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-015-0950-z
  16. Daniel Curcio, Alejandro Cané, Francisco Andrés Fernández, Jorge Correa. Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Infect Dis Ther 2019;8:87
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40121-019-0231-8
  17. Ilan Youngster, Dale N Gerding. Editorial: Making Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Easier to Swallow: Freeze-Dried Preparation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infections. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2017;112:948
    https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2017.91
  18. Francisco A. Uzal, Mauricio A. Navarro, Jihong Li, John C. Freedman, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A. McClane. Comparative pathogenesis of enteric clostridial infections in humans and animals. Anaerobe 2018;53:11
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.06.002
  19. Huawei Gu, Kan Shi, Zhengping Liao, Haonan Qi, Shuyi Chen, Haiying Wang, Shan Li, Yi Ma, Jufang Wang. Time-resolved transcriptome analysis of Clostridium difficile R20291 response to cysteine. Microbiological Research 2018;215:114
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2018.07.003
  20. Jing-Hui Tian, Gregory Glenn, David Flyer, Bin Zhou, Ye Liu, Eddie Sullivan, Hua Wu, James F. Cummings, Larry Elllingsworth, Gale Smith. Clostridium difficile chimeric toxin receptor binding domain vaccine induced protection against different strains in active and passive challenge models. Vaccine 2017;35:4079
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.062
  21. Daniela Zilio Larentis, Regis Goulart Rosa, Rodrigo Pires dos Santos, Luciano Zubaran Goldani. Outcomes and Risk Factors Associated withClostridium difficileDiarrhea in Hospitalized Adult Patients. Gastroenterology Research and Practice 2015;2015:1
    https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/346341
  22. Dominika Lachowicz, Hanna Pituch, Piotr Obuch-Woszczatyński. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Clostridium difficile strains belonging to different polymerase chain reaction ribotypes isolated in Poland in 2012. Anaerobe 2015;31:37
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.09.004
  23. Osamu Matsuoka, Dhaval M. Patel, Shin Sasaki, Hayato Oka, Toru Sasaki, Patricia J. Pietrobon, Thelma Laot, Alain Bouckenooghe, Josemund Menezes, Guy de Bruyn. Safety and immunogenicity of Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine in Japanese adults. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2018;14:322
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1395538
  24. Donna M. Schora, Lance R. Peterson, Elena A. Usacheva. Immunological Stability of Clostridium difficile Toxins in Clinical Specimens. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2018;39:434
    https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2018.20
  25. S. Gemein, B. Meyer, J. Gebel, C. Roques, K. Steinhauer. Response to J-Y. Maillard: Are amine-only-containing products sporicidal?. Journal of Hospital Infection 2018;100:e68
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2018.04.021
  26. Adeyinka C. Adejumo, Olalekan Akanbi, Lydie Pani. Among inpatients, ischemic bowel disease predisposes to Clostridium difficile infection with concomitant higher mortality and worse outcomes. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2019;31:109
    https://doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001273
  27. Qianyun Lin, Nira R Pollock, Alice Banz, Aude Lantz, Hua Xu, Limei Gu, Dale N Gerding, Kevin W Garey, Anne J Gonzales-Luna, Mingwei Zhao, Linan Song, David C Duffy, Ciaran P Kelly, Xinhua Chen. Toxin A–Predominant Pathogenic Clostridioides difficile: A Novel Clinical Phenotype. 2019
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz727
  28. Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado, Alfredo Gabriel Torres, Enrique Merino, Hernán Ruy Bonomi, Fernando Alberto Goldbaum, Víctor Antonio García-Angulo, Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb. Extensive Identification of Bacterial Riboflavin Transporters and Their Distribution across Bacterial Species. PLoS ONE 2015;10:e0126124
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126124
  29. M. Rätsep, S. Kõljalg, E. Sepp, I. Smidt, K. Truusalu, E. Songisepp, J. Stsepetova, P. Naaber, R.H. Mikelsaar, M. Mikelsaar. A combination of the probiotic and prebiotic product can prevent the germination of Clostridium difficile spores and infection. Anaerobe 2017;47:94
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.019
  30. BRUNO AMANTINI MESSIAS, BÁRBARA FREITAS FRANCHI, PEDRO HENRIQUE PONTES, DANIEL ÁTILA DE ANDRADE MEDEIROS BARBOSA, CÉSAR AUGUSTO SANITA VIANA. Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection: state of the art and literature review. Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. 2018;45
    https://doi.org/10.1590/0100-6991e-20181609
  31. Can M Ünal, Michael Steinert. Novel therapeutic strategies forClostridium difficileinfections. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 2016;20:269
    https://doi.org/10.1517/14728222.2016.1090428
  32. Yuya Okada, Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara. Molecular epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile and risk factors for the detection of toxin gene-positive strains. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 2019;25:262
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2018.12.004
  33. Yu Mi Lee, Kyu Chan Huh, Soon Man Yoon, Byung Ik Jang, Jeong Eun Shin, Hoon Sup Koo, Yunho Jung, Sae Hee Kim, Hee Seok Moon, Seung Woo Lee. Incidence and Clinical Outcomes of Clostridium difficile Infection after Treatment with Tuberculosis Medication. Gut Liver 2016;10:250
    https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl14435
  34. Margarita Camorlinga, Michelle Sanchez-Rojas, Javier Torres, Mariana Romo-Castillo. Phenotypic Characterization of Non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile Strains Isolated From Patients in Mexico. Front. Microbiol. 2019;10
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00084
  35. Evelyn Balsells, Ting Shi, Callum Leese, Iona Lyell, John Burrows, Camilla Wiuff, Harry Campbell, Moe H Kyaw, Harish Nair. Global burden of Clostridium difficile infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019;9
    https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.09.010407
  36. Jana Makroczyová, Ján Jamroškovič, Eva Krascsenitsová, Nad'a Labajová, Imrich Barák. Oscillating behavior ofClostridium difficileMin proteins inBacillus subtilis. MicrobiologyOpen 2016;5:387
    https://doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.337
  37. Sophia Julia Häfner. Sweet dreams: How mini-invasive surgery tackles obstructive sleep apnea. Biomedical Journal 2019;42:75
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2019.04.005
  38. V. Beran, E. J. Kuijper, C. Harmanus, I. M. Sanders, S. M. van Dorp, C. W. Knetsch, J. Janeckova, A. Seidelova, L. Barekova, J. Tvrdik, D. Chmelar, I. Ciznar. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to six antimicrobials of Clostridium difficile isolates from three Czech hospitals in Eastern Bohemia in 2011–2012. Folia Microbiol 2017;62:445
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-017-0515-x
  39. Uday C Ghoshal, Kok-Ann Gwee, Gerald Holtmann, Yanmei Li, Soo Jung Park, Marcellus Simadibrata, Kentaro Sugano, Kaichun Wu, Eamonn M M Quigley, Henry Cohen. The role of the microbiome and the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders in adults in the Asia-Pacific region - background and recommendations of a regional consensus meeting. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2018;33:57
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.13840
  40. Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim. Proton Pump Inhibitors Should be Used with Caution in Critically Ill Patients to Prevent the Risk of Clostridium difficile Infection. Gut and Liver 2016;10:493
    https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl16216
  41. Nigel George Ternan, Nicola Diana Moore, Deborah Smyth, Gordon James McDougall, James William Allwood, Susan Verrall, Christopher Ian Richard Gill, James Stephen Gerard Dooley, Geoff McMullan. Increased sporulation underpins adaptation of Clostridium difficile strain 630 to a biologically–relevant faecal environment, with implications for pathogenicity. Sci Rep 2018;8
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35050-x
  42. Guglielmo Borgia, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Maria Foggia, Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Ivan Gentile. Fecal microbiota transplantation forClostridium difficileinfection: back to the future. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 2015;15:1001
    https://doi.org/10.1517/14712598.2015.1045872
  43. Christopher Troeger, Brigette F Blacker, Ibrahim A Khalil, Puja C Rao, Shujin Cao, Stephanie RM Zimsen, Samuel B Albertson, Jeffery D Stanaway, Aniruddha Deshpande, Zegeye Abebe, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Azmeraw T Amare, Solomon W Asgedom, Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh, Carl Abelardo T Antonio, Olatunde Aremu, Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw, Tesfay Mehari Atey, Suleman Atique, Euripide Frinel G Arthur Avokpaho, Ashish Awasthi, Henok Tadesse Ayele, Aleksandra Barac, Mauricio L Barreto, Quique Bassat, Saba Abraham Belay, Isabela M Bensenor, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Ali Bijani, Hailemichael Bizuneh, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Abel Fekadu Dadi, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Huyen Phuc Do, Manisha Dubey, Eleonora Dubljanin, Dumessa Edessa, Aman Yesuf Endries, Babak Eshrati, Tamer Farag, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Kyle J Foreman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Nancy Fullman, Peter W Gething, Melkamu Dedefo Gishu, William W Godwin, Harish Chander Gugnani, Rahul Gupta, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu, Olayinka S Ilesanmi, Jost B Jonas, Amaha Kahsay, Gagandeep Kang, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ibrahim A Khalil, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Ali Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Niranjan Kissoon, Sonali Kochhar, Karen L Kotloff, Ai Koyanagi, G Anil Kumar, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Suresh Mehata, Walter Mendoza, Desalegn Tadese Mengistu, Bereket Gebremichael Menota, Haftay Berhane Mezgebe, Fitsum Weldegebreal Mlashu, Srinivas Murthy, Gurudatta A Naik, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Andrew Toyin Olagunju, Deepak Paudel, James A Platts-Mills, Mostafa Qorbani, Anwar Rafay, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Saleem M Rana, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Davide Rasella, Sarah E Ray, Cesar Reis, Andre MN Renzaho, Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, George Mugambage Ruhago, Saeid Safiri, Joshua A Salomon, Juan Ramon Sanabria, Benn Sartorius, Monika Sawhney, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Mika Shigematsu, Mekonnen Sisay, Ranjani Somayaji, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Bryan L Sykes, Getachew Redae Taffere, Roman Topor-Madry, Bach Xuan Tran, Kald Beshir Tuem, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Stein Emil Vollset, Judd L Walson, Marcia R Weaver, Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs, Andrea Werdecker, Abdulhalik Workicho, Muluken Yenesew, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Naohiro Yonemoto, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Theo Vos, Stephen S Lim, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher JL Murray, Ali H Mokdad, Simon I Hay, Robert C Reiner. Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoea in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2018;18:1211
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30362-1
  44. Nienke Z. Borren, Shadi Ghadermarzi, Susan Hutfless, Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan, Abhishek Deshpande. The emergence of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of incidence and impact. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0176797
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176797
  45. Nazila V. Jafari, Mario Songane, Richard A. Stabler, Mamoun Elawad, Brendan W. Wren, Elaine Allan, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, S. R. Blanke. Host Immunity to Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 017 Strains. Infect. Immun. 2014;82:4989
    https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.02605-14
  46. Lyudmila Boyanova, Rumyana Markovska, Petyo Hadzhiyski, Daniel Yordanov, Penka Yaneva, Ivan Mitov. Recurrent Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in a patient suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and benefits of resistotyping. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2019;94:334
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.02.011
  47. Neil Boudville, David W Johnson, Junhui Zhao, Brian A Bieber, Ronald L Pisoni, Beth Piraino, Judith Bernardini, Sharon J Nessim, Yasuhiko Ito, Graham Woodrow, Fiona Brown, John Collins, Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Jeffrey Perl. Regional variation in the treatment and prevention of peritoneal dialysis-related infections in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. 2019;34:2118
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy204
  48. Rowena Almeida, Teklu Gerbaba, Elaine O. Petrof. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and the microbiome. J Gastroenterol 2016;51:1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-015-1099-3
  49. Mwanaisha Seugendo, Iryna Janssen, Vanessa Lang, Irene Hasibuan, Wolfgang Bohne, Paul Cooper, Rolf Daniel, Katrin Gunka, R. L. Kusumawati, Stephen E. Mshana, Lutz von Müller, Benard Okamo, Jan R. Ortlepp, Jörg Overmann, Thomas Riedel, Maja Rupnik, Ortrud Zimmermann, Uwe Groß. Prevalence and Strain Characterization of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Representative Regions of Germany, Ghana, Tanzania and Indonesia – A Comparative Multi-Center Cross-Sectional Study. Front. Microbiol. 2018;9
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01843
  50. Christianne Maria Tinoco-Veras, Ana Angélica Q. A. Santos, Joice Stipursky, Marcelo Meloni, Ana Paula Bérgamo Araujo, Danielle Abreu Foschetti, Diana López-Ureña, Carlos Quesada-Gómez, Renata F. C. Leitão, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Vincent B. Young. Transforming Growth Factor β1/SMAD Signaling Pathway Activation Protects the Intestinal Epithelium from Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Damage. Infect. Immun. 2017;85
    https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00430-17
  51. Mareike Berges, Annika-Marisa Michel, Christian Lassek, Aaron M. Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Petra Dersch, Katharina Riedel, Susanne Sievers, Dörte Becher, Andreas Otto, Sandra Maaß, Manfred Rohde, Denitsa Eckweiler, Jose M. Borrero-de Acuña, Martina Jahn, Meina Neumann-Schaal, Dieter Jahn. Iron Regulation in Clostridioides difficile. Front. Microbiol. 2018;9
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03183
  52. Tali Friedman-Korn, Dan Meir Livovsky, Nitsan Maharshak, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Kalman Paz, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Eran Goldin, Benjamin Koslowsky. Fecal Transplantation for Treatment of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Elderly and Debilitated Patients. Dig Dis Sci 2018;63:198
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-017-4833-2
  53. Huawei Gu, Yingyin Yang, Meng Wang, Shuyi Chen, Haiying Wang, Shan Li, Yi Ma, Jufang Wang. Novel Cysteine Desulfidase CdsB Involved in Releasing Cysteine Repression of Toxin Synthesis in Clostridium difficile. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2018;7
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00531
  54. Tumas Beinortas, Nicholas E Burr, Mark H Wilcox, Venkataraman Subramanian. Comparative efficacy of treatments for Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2018;18:1035
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30285-8
  55. Soobin Yoon, Junsun Yu, Andrea McDowell, Sung Ho Kim, Hyun Ju You, GwangPyo Ko. Bile salt hydrolase-mediated inhibitory effect of Bacteroides ovatus on growth of Clostridium difficile. J Microbiol. 2017;55:892
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-017-7340-4
  56. Sharon A Greenberg, Ilan Youngster, Nathaniel A Cohen, Dan M Livovsky, Jacob Strahilevitz, Eran Israeli, Ehud Melzer, Kalman Paz, Naomi Fliss-Isakov, Nitsan Maharshak. Five years of fecal microbiota transplantation - an update of the Israeli experience. WJG 2018;24:5403
    https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i47.5403
  57. Yi-Hsuan Su, Ali Rohani, Cirle A. Warren, Nathan S. Swami. Tracking Inhibitory Alterations during Interstrain Clostridium difficile Interactions by Monitoring Cell Envelope Capacitance. ACS Infect. Dis. 2016;2:544
    https://doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.6b00050
  58. Marcelo José Barbosa Silva, Matheus Batista Heitor Carneiro, Brunna dos Anjos Pultz, Danielle Pereira Silva, Mateus Eustáquio de Moura Lopes, Liliane Martins dos Santos. The Multifaceted Role of Commensal Microbiota in Homeostasis and Gastrointestinal Diseases. Journal of Immunology Research 2015;2015:1
    https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/321241
  59. Amanda Nádia Diniz, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Eduardo Garcia Vilela, Henrique Cesar Pereira Figueiredo, Maja Rupnik, Mark H. Wilcox, Warren N. Fawley, Dominique S. Blanc, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva. Molecular epidemiology of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile isolates from a university hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anaerobe 2019;56:34
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.01.010
  60. George J. Li, Justin Trac, Shahid Husain, Olusegun Famure, Yanhong Li, S. Joseph Kim. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Clostridium difficile Infections in Kidney Transplant Recipients. Transplantation 2018;102:1576
    https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002199
  61. Thomas F. Dodson. Invited commentary on Clostridium difficile increases the risk for venous thromboembolism. The American Journal of Surgery 2014;208:710
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.07.003
  62. C. M. Thorpe, L. A. McDermott, M. K. Tran, J. Chang, S. G. Jenkins, E. J. C. Goldstein, R. Patel, B. A. Forbes, S. Johnson, D. N. Gerding, D. R. Snydman. U.S.-Based National Surveillance for Fidaxomicin Susceptibility of Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrheal Isolates from 2013 to 2016. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019;63
    https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00391-19
  63. Jana G. Hashash, David G. Binion. Managing Clostridium difficile in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2014;16
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11894-014-0393-1
  64. Wei Hong, Jie Zhang, Guzhen Cui, Luxin Wang, Yi Wang. Multiplexed CRISPR-Cpf1-Mediated Genome Editing in Clostridium difficile toward the Understanding of Pathogenesis of C. difficile Infection. ACS Synth. Biol. 2018;7:1588
    https://doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.8b00087
  65. Maribeth Nicholson, Isaac Thomsen, Kathryn Edwards. Controversies Surrounding Clostridium difficile Infection in Infants and Young Children. Children 2014;1:40
    https://doi.org/10.3390/children1010040
  66. M. Huart, C. Abat, M.T. Jimeno, X. Deparis, D. Raoult, P.-E. Fournier. Compared lethality rates of Clostridium difficile infections at the local, regional and national levels in France. New Microbes and New Infections 2016;14:6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2016.07.006
  67. Hsiao-Ting Yang, Jenn-Wei Chen, Jagat Rathod, Yu-Zhen Jiang, Pei-Jane Tsai, Yuan-Pin Hung, Wen-Chien Ko, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, I-Hsiu Huang. Lauric Acid Is an Inhibitor of Clostridium difficile Growth in Vitro and Reduces Inflammation in a Mouse Infection Model. Front. Microbiol. 2018;8
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02635
  68. J. Mattner, F. Schmidt, B. Siegmund. Faecal microbiota transplantation—A clinical view. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2016;306:310
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2016.02.003
  69. Zhong Peng, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Wan Liang, Zhuofei Xu, Biao Tang, Yuanguo Wang, Juping Duan, Chenchao Fu, Bin Wu, Anhua Wu, Chunhui Li. Genome characterization of a novel binary toxin-positive strain of Clostridium difficile and comparison with the epidemic 027 and 078 strains. Gut Pathog 2017;9
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s13099-017-0191-z
  70. Mario Kapitan, M. Joanna Niemiec, Alexander Steimle, Julia S. Frick, Ilse D. Jacobsen. Fungal Physiology and Immunopathogenesis. 2017.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_117
  71. Mattias E. Ivarsson, Jean-Christophe Leroux, Bastien Castagner. Investigational new treatments for Clostridium difficile infection. Drug Discovery Today 2015;20:602
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2014.12.003
  72. Meenakshi Singh, Chetana Vaishnavi, Safrun Mahmood, Rakesh Kochhar. Surveillance for Antibiotic Resistance in <i>Clostridium difficile</i> Strains Isolated from Patients in a Tertiary Care Center. AiM 2015;05:336
    https://doi.org/10.4236/aim.2015.55034
  73. Gurinder K. Vinner, Goran T. Vladisavljević, Martha R. J. Clokie, Danish J. Malik, Etienne Dague. Microencapsulation of Clostridium difficile specific bacteriophages using microfluidic glass capillary devices for colon delivery using pH triggered release. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0186239
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186239
  74. Rita D. Shelby, Natalie Tengberg, Miriam Conces, Jacob K. Olson, Jason B. Navarro, Michael T. Bailey, Steven D. Goodman, Gail E. Besner. Development of a Standardized Scoring System to Assess a Murine Model of Clostridium difficile Colitis. Journal of Investigative Surgery 2019:1
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2019.1571129
  75. Hiroyuki Kunishima, Kaoru Ito, Thomas Laurent, Machiko Abe. Healthcare burden of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in Japan: A retrospective database study. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 2018;24:892
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2018.07.020
  76. Ola H. Negm, Mohamed R. Hamed, Elizabeth M. Dilnot, Clifford C. Shone, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Christine E. Loscher, Laura J. Edwards, Patrick J. Tighe, Mark H. Wilcox, Tanya M. Monaghan, R. L. Hodinka. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22:1033
    https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00190-15
  77. Takahiko NAGAMINE, Yoshinobu MATSUMOTO, Masaru NAKAMURA. Combination probiotics may prevent Clostridium difficile infection among elderly patients undergoing an orthopedic surgery. 2019;38:31
    https://doi.org/10.12938/bmfh.18-009
  78. Sherin Justin, Beena Antony. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR THE DETECTION OF TOXIN A ( TCD A ) AND TOXIN B ( TCD B ) GENES OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE ISOLATED FROM DIARRHOEAL CASES AND ANALYSIS OF THE CLINICAL SPECTRUM. jemds 2015;4:4938
    https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2015/721
  79. Jae Yoon Na, Jong Mo Park, Kyung Suk Lee, Jung Oak Kang, Sung Hee Oh, Yong Joo Kim. Clinical Characteristics of SymptomaticClostridium difficileInfection in Children: Conditions as Infection Risks and Whether Probiotics Is Effective. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2014;17:232
    https://doi.org/10.5223/pghn.2014.17.4.232
  80. Christian Eckmann, Sue Lyon. ECCMID 2016: addressing the burden of recurrentClostridium difficileinfections. Future Microbiology 2016;11:1217
    https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2016-0154
  81. Meenakshi Singh, Chetana Vaishnavi, Safrun Mahmood, Rakesh Kochhar. Toxinotyping and Sequencing of Clostridium difficile Isolates from Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India. Front. Med. 2017;4
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2017.00033
  82. Wasef Na’amnih, Amos Adler, Tamar Miller-Roll, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli. Incidence and Risk Factors for Community and Hospital Acquisition of Clostridium difficile Infection in the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2017;38:912
    https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2017.82
  83. Jung Hoon Song, You Sun Kim. RecurrentClostridium difficileInfection: Risk Factors, Treatment, and Prevention. Gut and Liver 2019;13:16
    https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl18071
  84. Micaela Machado Querido, Lívia Aguiar, Paula Neves, Cristiana Costa Pereira, João Paulo Teixeira. Self-disinfecting surfaces and infection control. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2019;178:8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.02.009
  85. Pil Hun Song, Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim, Soo Yeon Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Jeonghun Lee, Hyun Sung, Jeong Seop Moon, Dong Hee Whang. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Intest Res 2018;16:109
    https://doi.org/10.5217/ir.2018.16.1.109
  86. Sophia Julia Häfner. Big browser is watching you. Microbes and Infection 2018;20:271
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2018.04.002
  87. Can Murat Ünal, Mareike Berges, Nathiana Smit, Cordelia Schiene-Fischer, Christina Priebe, Till Strowig, Dieter Jahn, Michael Steinert. PrsA2 (CD630_35000) of Clostridioides difficile Is an Active Parvulin-Type PPIase and a Virulence Modulator. Front. Microbiol. 2018;9
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02913
  88. Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Takafumi Kubo, Yuri Hoshino, Masahito Hosokawa, Haruko Takeyama, Mitsuru Higuchi. Effects of short‐term endurance exercise on gut microbiota in elderly men. Physiol Rep 2018;6:e13935
    https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13935
  89. I Na Yoon, Li Fang Lu, Ji Hong, Peng Zhang, Dae Hong Kim, Jin Ku Kang, Jae Sam Hwang, Ho Kim. The American cockroach peptide periplanetasin-4 inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced cell toxicities and inflammatory responses in the mouse gut. J. Pept. Sci. 2017;23:833
    https://doi.org/10.1002/psc.3046
  90. Erika J. Goldberg, Sumit Bhalodia, Sherin Jacob, Hatil Patel, Ken V. Trinh, Blessy Varghese, Jungmo Yang, Sean R. Young, Robert B. Raffa. Clostridium difficileinfection: A brief update on emerging therapies. 2015;72:1007
    https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp140645
  91. James Collins, Heather Danhof, Robert A. Britton. The role of trehalose in the global spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile. Gut Microbes 2019;10:204
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2018.1491266